This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary Yanggu original white kaolin supplementation on the growth performances, nutrients utilizability and meat composition of broiler. A total of 260 broiler chicks was alloted to 5 treatments with 4 replications and 13 chicks per replication. In addition to control group that fed diet without any kaolin supplementation, the treatments are designated by dietary supplementation as follows; white kaolin 400 mesh 1%(T1), white kaolin 10,000 mesh 1%(T2), white kaolin 400 mesh 0.8% + probiotics 0.2%(T3) and kaolin rizen(T4). The specific volume of 10,000 mesh white kaolin was higher than that of 400 mesh white kaolin (p<0.05) with no difference in pH between two different size white kaolins. Pellet durability of kaolins supplemented diet was improved, regardless of fat addition, compared to that of no kaolin supplemented diet. Both weight gain and feed intake of broilers in all the kaolin supplemented treatments were higher than that of control during d 0~21 period (p<0.05) but with no differences during d 22~40, On the other hand, kaolin supplementation into the control diet did not affect F/G of young broiler during d 1~21. Overall F/G of broiler was decreased by kaolin supplementation. Although there was no difference on ether extract, crude ash, total CHO and dry matter utilizabilities among all treatments, both crude protein and energy utilizabilities were improved by kaolin supplementation. Crude protein content of both broiler thigh and breast was the lowest in the kaolin and probiotics combined supplemented group(T3). In conclusion, the supplementation of physico-chemically treated white kaolin does affect growth performances, nutrients utilizability and meat composition of broilers. Therefore, the kaolin can be considered as a beneficial feed additive to improve broiler productivity.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary oils on the levels of the γ-linolenic acid in chicken meat lipids. Three hundred ten five, 1-d old, male, Ross strain, broiler chicks were fed for 35 d to compare diets containing evening primrose oil(EPO) and hemp seed oil(HO) to a control diet. Fatty acid composition of lipid from chicken skin, thigh and breast muscle were determined at the end of the trial. The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken meat fed diets containing EPO or HO was significantly higher than that of the control group(p<0.05). The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken skin was highest in the group, which had been fed the EPO 0.85%, followed in order by EPO 0.7%, 0.5%, EPO mixed oil, HO and HO mixed oil. There was a significant difference in the level of γ-linolenic acid of chicken skin between the control and treatment groups(p<0.05). The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken thigh muscle was also similar to skin, and significantly higher than that of the control group(p<0.05). The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken breast muscle was highest in the group, which had been fed the EPO 0.5%, followed in order by EPO 0.7%, 0.85%, HO 0.5% and HO mixed oil. There was a significant difference in the level of γ-linolenic acid of chicken breast muscle between the control and treatment groups(p<0.05).
This study examined the effects of different levels of evening primrose oil(EPO) on the accumulation of γ-fatty acids in broiler meat. Six hundred one-day-old male chicks (Ross strain) from commercial broilers were divided randomly into 6 groups × 4 repeat pens. The broilers were fed experimental diets containing 4.0% tallow(control), 0.5% EPO, 0.7% mixed oil(EPO 70 : soy bean oil 30), 1.5% EPO, 3.0% EPO or 4.0% EPO for 35 days. There was a significant difference in body weight gain between the control and treatment groups except for the 0.5% EPO group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the percentage of thigh and breast weight against the carcass weight between control and treatment groups except for the 0.5% EPO group in the thigh and 0.5% EPO and 4.0% EPO groups in the breast weight (p<0.05). The saturated fatty acid levels of the skin and breast muscle lipid of the broilers fed diets containing EPO were significantly lower than that of the control group (p<0.05), while the level of unsaturated fatty acid was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). The γ-fatty acid(GLA, gamma-linolenic acid, 18:3n-6) level was particularly higher in the chicken meat lipids from the broilers fed EPO than in the control group (p< 0.05). This shows that feeding EPO to chicks can produce novel functional broiler meat that is enriched in gamma-linolenic acid.
A total of 240 weaned pigs (Landrace ×Yorkshire × Duroc, 22±3 d of age, 5.16±0.90 kg initial body weight) were used to study the effect of feeding level of microbial fermented soya protein on their blood hematology, enzymes and immune cell populations. The microbial (Aspergillus oryzae + Bacillus subtilis) fermented soya protein (FSP) was used. Pigs were allotted to four dietary treatments, each comprising of 4 pens with 15 pigs. Basal diets consisted of 15% soya bean meal (Control diet); while for treatment diets SBM was replaced with 3, 6 and 9% FSP. The experimental diets were fed from 0 to 14 day after weaning and then a common commercial diet was fed from 15 to 35 day. Blood was collected on 14 and 35 day of experiment and analyzed for hematology, plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and immune cell populations. Increasing the level of FSP in the diet of pigs linearly decreased distribution of red blood cells (P<0.01), MPV (P<0.05), MO (P<0.05), EO (P<0.05) and BA (P<0.05) on d 14. Linear and quadratic decrease in the RBC (P<0.05), Hb (P<0.05), HCT (P<0.01), PLT (P<0.001) and EO (P<0.05) and linear increase in the MCHC (P<0.001), MPV (P<0.05), WBC (P<0.05) and NE (P<0.05) on d 35 was noted. Pigs fed with 6% FSP had lower (P<0.05) levels of AST and ALT on d 14, while the levels of ALT and AST on d 35 did not differ among the dietary treatments. Thus the results suggest that microbial fermented soya protein affected the hematological indices, immune cell populations and plasma enzymes in weaned pigs.
In this study 300 weaned pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc, 23±3 d of age, 5.56± 1.21 kg initial body weight) were used to study the effect of fungal (Aspergillus oryzae, FSP-A) and fungal + bacteria (Aspergillus oryzae + Bacillus subtilis, FSP-B) fermented soya proteins on their blood hematology, enzymes and immune cell populations. Pigs were allotted to 5 treatments, each comprising of 4 pens with 15 pigs. Basal diets consisted of 15% soyabean meal (Control diet) while for treatment diets SBM was replaced with 3 and 6% of each FSP-A and FSP-B, respectively. The experimental diets were fed from 0 to 14 day after weaning and then a common commercial diet was fed from 15 to 35 day. Blood was collected on 14 and 35 day of experiment and analyzed for hematology, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and immune cell populations. At d 14, lower RBC count, Hb and HCT values and higher AST values were noted in pigs fed FSP-A diets when compared with Control and FSP-B fed pigs.Also at d 14 pigs fed 6% FSP-A had lower NE (P<0.05) when compared with those fed 6% FSP-B. The level of FSP influenced the RDW on d 14 and MCHC, MO and MPV on d 35. In addition on d 35, pigs fed 3% FSP-A had lesser NE than those fed 6% FSP -A and Control diet, while pigs fed 6% FSP-B had the highest number of MO compared to other treatments. But there were no differences in the plasma AST and ALT values on d 35. Thus it may be concluded that the FSP either by fungal or fungal + bacterial sources had an influence on the blood hematological status and the populations of immune cells.
This study demonstrates that pork cholesterol levels are reduced in finishing swine fed β-cyclodextrin (βCD). The study subjects were 120 swine fed their respective chow diets containing 0, 5, 7, or 10% βCD for 35 consecutive days. Plasma total lipids, triglyceride and total cholesterol of the βCD- treated group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). The levels of plasma lipid were significantly decreased by 63.22 mg, 73.98 mg, and 82.12 mg in the finishing swine group fed βCD at 5%, 7%, and 10% , respectively, compared to those in the control group (p<0.05). When 5, 7, and 10% βCD was administered to finishing swine, the triacylglyceride levels were decreased by 56.24 mg, 55.48 mg, and 60.02 mg, and total cholesterol concentration was reduced by 25.05 mg, 27.17 mg, and 30.19 mg, respectively, compared to those in the control group (p<0.05). Excretion of total steroid significantly (p<0.05) increased with increase of βCD supplementation. The cholesterol levels of swine back fat, belly, loin, and ham were significantly decreased with increase of βCD supplementation (p<0.05). The pork cholesterol was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 15.31% in the βCD-treated group, compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that feeding βCD to finishing swine may produce novel functional pork with low cholesterol levels.
This study report that the gamma linolenic acid content of pork is higher in finishing pigs fed diets containing hemp seed oil, evening primrose oil or borage oil as the sources of gamma linolenic acid. Thirty six three crossing swines (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc), 80 kg of body weight, were randomly separated into four treatment groups with three pens per treatment and three animals per pen. The finishing swines were fed the experimental diets for 35 days until they reached the market weight of 110 kg. The animals were assigned to the four experimental diets: control diet containing 5.00% tallow, T1 containing 5.00% hemp seed oil(hemp seed oil 40 : soybean oil 60), T2 containing 5.00% evening primrose oil(primrose oil 40 : soybean oil 60), T3 containing 5.00% borage oil(borage oil 40 : soybean oil 60). The plasma triacylglycerol and total cholesterol content of the swine in the gamma fatty acids-fed groups were significantly(p<0.05) lower than those in the control group. No gamma linolenic acid was detected in the plasma of the control group, while the level of gamma linolenic acid treatment groups was significantly(p<0.05) higher than the control in the order of T3, T2 and T1. Moreover, the level of gamma linolenic acid increased with increasing number of feeding days. There was a significant difference between the treatment groups (p<0.05). There was a difference in the amount of saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulated in the pork according to the treatment groups or the parts of the pork meat. The level of n-3 fatty acid of pork was highest in T1, which had been fed the hemp seed oil, followed in order by T3 and T2(p<0.05). The content of gamma linolenic acid in pork was highest in T3, which had been fed the borage oil, followed in order by T2 and T1(p<0.05). In particular, the level of gamma linolenic acid in pork increased in the order of the back fat, pork belly, ham and loin.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of market weight on the sensory attributes of Korean native black pork. The M. longissimus from Korean native black pigs (KNP) with market weight of 56 kg and 70 kg were utilized as experimental materials. The intramuscular fat content, a* (redness) and b* yellowness) values were higher in KNP with market weight of 70 kg than in KNP with market weight of 56 kg (p<0.05). In TPA, hardness, adhesiveness, guminess and chewiness were lower in KNP with market weight of 70 kg than in KNP with market weight of 56 kg (p<0.05). The marbling score, meat color and overall liking among sensory evaluation of raw pork and taste, texture and overall liking among sensory evaluation of cooked pork were higher in KNP with market weight of 70 kg than in KNP with market weight of 56 kg (p<0.05). Therefore, higher market weight of KNP increased the sensory attributes of pork.
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of wood vinegar (WV) on the fecal microbes and gas emission in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 224 weaned piglets (L×Y×D, 21 d-old, initial BW 6.02 ± 0.52 kg) were assigned to four treatments of different WV levels in randomized completely block design with four replicates (14 piglets/pen) for 28 days, including phases I (0-2 wk) and phase II (3-4 wk). The dietary treatments were 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% of WV added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The concentration of ammonia measured at 0 h and 24 h in feces did not differ among dietary treatments (p>0.05), but it was linearly decreased (p<0.05) in 0.2% and 0.3% addition level measured at 48 h and 72 h. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide had no significant change (p>0.05) within treatments measured at different time. The fecal total bacteria (TBC), Lactobacilli(LAB) and E. coli were measured on 14 d and 28 d. TBC were higher (p>0.05) in WV added treatments than the control. Similar results were obtained for LAB. But E. coli populations were decreased (p<0.05) in treatments added WV compared to control measured on 14 d and 35 d. In Exp. 2, 288 weaned piglets (L×Y×D, 21 d-old, initial BW 6.62 ± 0.31 kg) were assigned to four treatments in a randomized completely block design with four replicates (18 piglets/pen) for 28 days. The dietary treatments were basal diet (negative control, NC), 0.2% organic acid (positive control, PC), 0.2% antibiotic (AT) and 0.2% WV added to a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The fecal total bacteria (TBC), Lactobacilli(LAB) and E. coli were measured on 14 d and 28 d. TBC, LAB and E. coli showed lower counts in pigs fed AT diets than others. In conclusion, these results indicated that wood vinegar could reduce the NH3 concentration of feces and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria.
This study was carried out to determine the maintenance and social behavior characteristics of Hanwoo steers by season. Forty eight Hanwoo steers were video-recorded at 15, 17 and 19 months of age for behavior measurement. Hanwoo steers spent more feeding time (p<0.05) in autumn than in summer and/or winter. Standing time was linearly increased (p<0.05) along with seasonal transition, from summer to winter. The rice straw intake speed was the fastest the summer, whereas the concentrate intake speed was relatively fast in winter. Furthermore, Hanwoo steers showed more behavior time and count for lying down (p<0.05) and drinking (p<0.05) in summer than in autumn and winter. Also, Hanwoo steers spent less count (p<0.05) self grooming and scratching in summer.
This study was to invesigate the effect of dietary supplemention of Pozzolan, Chromium-methionine chelate and rhus verniciflua stokes additive feed on growth performance and ultrasound live body characteristics in finishing Hanwoo steer. The animal used in the experiment were a total of 17 heads and weighted 577.09±35.90㎏. The experimental diets were basal hi-lok branded only concentrat and rice straw and 4% Rhus, 0.4% Cramin and 2% Pozzolan, which additice in basal diet. Individually average daily gain was tended to decreased with treated group. Ultrasound back fat thickness and marbling score were not significantly different(p<0.05)between teratment, however Pozzolan additive treat was showed tend to increased. Longissimus muscle area was showed tended to decreased in the Pozzolan treatment.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of parity and region on the live body charateristics of Hanwoo cows. The data used were logissimus muscle area (LMAU), back fat thickness (BFTU), marbling score (MSU), and p8 point fat thickness (P8 FTU), by ultrasound from 1,239 heads of hi-lok branded Hanwoo cows. Based upon ultrasound characteristics of LMAU, BFTU, MSU and P8 FTU were significantly high in Hanwoo cows in Hwacheon area. Live body characteristics were increased with the parity, however estimated value tended to decreased after sixth parturition. Also, comparative of pre or after parturiti- on on the live body characteristics, pre parturition value showed little lower than after parturition
This study was performed to examine the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) and fermented alcoholic feedstuff(FAF) on blood metabolites, carcass characteristics and profitability. Sixteen Hanwoos(bulls; 8, steers; 8) with average 143㎏ of body weight were randomly assigned to bull control group(BC), steer control group(SC), bull group(BrA) treated with rBST and FAF, and steer group(SrA) treated with rBST and FAF. Sustained release rBST(0.03㎎/㎏/body weight) was administered biweekly and dose of rBST was adjusted monthly according to body weight increase. The blood glucose content was higher in the groups treated with rBST and FAF than control groups. The blood cholesterol contents tended to be lower in the treatment groups (BrA, 120.5 mg/dl; SrA, 104.0 mg/dl) than in the control groups (BC, 141.0 mg/dl; SC, 125.5 mg/dl). No significant difference between the groups of bulls and steers were found in the blood triglyceride concentrations as well as the albumin contents. The rib eye area of BC and BrA were 70 and 72 cm2, respectively, which are slightly larger than the area of SC and SrA. The treatment did not affect the backfat thickness both in bulls and steers. The marbling scores of BC and BrA appeared as No. 1 and No. 2, respectively, and No. 3 and No. 4 were obtained in SC and SrA. Lower non saturate fat concentrations were observed in the treatment groups (BrA, 64.30%; SrA, 59.59) than in control groups (BC, 58.98%; SC, 58.09%). Saturated fatty acids and amino acids contents were slightly more improved in the treatment than in the control. Average auction prices of BC and BrA were 7,900 and 8,089 wons per 1kg of carcass, respectively, whereas the prices of SC and SrA were 9407 and 9866 wons per 1kg of carcass, respectively. It is concluded that the treatment with rBST and FAF can improve the growth performance such as marbling scores and rib eye area and increase the auction prices.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of fermented alcoholic feedstuff (FAF), sustained-release recombinant bovine somatotropin(rBST) on growth performance and body size of Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. The experiment was carried at the Livestock Breeding Station in Kangwon-do with fourteen bulls of two groups, control and treatment. Seven bulls per each group were allocateed. In control group, bulls were treated with total mixed ration(TMR) for the whole experimental periods. In treatment group, bulls were treated with TMR+FAF+rBST for the fattening period and TMR+FAF for the finishing period, respectively. The results are summarized as follows ; Average daily gains(ADG) of control and treatment groups were 0.86 and 1.11kg during the fattening period. ADG of treatment group were 29.1% higher than that of control group. For the whole experimental period, the fattening period and finishing period, ADG in control and treatment groups were 0.69 and 0.79kg, respectively, which shows 14.5% improvement of ADG in treatment group. Dry matter intake(DMI) was higher in treatment group than in control group during the finishing, fattening or whole experimental period. Feed conversion efficiencies in fattening period were 8.65 for control group and 6.93 for treatment group which shows improving 19.9% of feed conversion efficiency for treatment group, while 12.38 for control group and 14.48 for treatment group in finishing period. There were no significant differences between control and treatment group in feed conversion efficiency for the whole experimental period. Overall results indicate that the favorable feeding system to produce growth performance is TMR+FAF+rBST feeding during the fattening period and TMR+FAF feeding in treatment during the finishing period.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of fermented alcoholic feedstuff (FAF), sustained-release recombinant bovine somatotropin(rBST) on blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Korean native cattle, Hanwoo. The experiment was carried at the Livestock Breeding Station in Kangwon-do with fourteen bulls with two groups, control and treatment. Seven bulls per each group were allocated. In control group, bulls were treated with total mixed ration(TMR) for the whole experimental periods. In treatment group, bulls were treated whith TMR+FAF+rBST for the fattening period and TMR+FAF for finishing period, respectively. The results are summarized as follows ; Blood creatinine concentration was higher in treatment group than in control group(P<0.05), while cholesterol content in blood was lower in treatment group than in control group. There were no significant differences between in control and treatment group on back-fat thickness(BFT) and rib eye area(REA), however, MS of treatment was more improved than that of control. The frequencies of yield grade A and quality grade 1 were 33 and 17% for control group and, 50 and 50% for treatment group, respectively, which imply higher appearances of grade A and grade 1 in treatment group than in control group. The auction prices(won/carcass kg) were 11,145 and 11,573 won in control and treatment group, respectively, and net gross incomes per carcass were 654,408 and 1,051,542 won in control and treatment groups, respectively, which suggest that the margin of profit between treatment and control group was 397,134 won per carcass. Overall results indicate that the favorable feeding system to produce high quality beef with high profit is TMR+FAF+rBST feeding during the fattening period and TMR+FAF feeding during the finishing period.
This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics of native type black pigs (Black pigs) with those of commercial cross bred pigs (Commercial pigs) with the data collected from pig farms. 8364 and 33786 records were collected from Black pigs and the Commercial pigs, respectively. The Commercial pigs were mainly from three breed crosses of Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc. Commercial pig data was subdivided into manual and machine sub data set on the judging method. Black pigs showed lower carcass weight (CWT) and thinner back fat thickness (BFT) than Commercial pigs. However, the ratio of BFT to CWT (BFT/CWT ratio) was higher in Black pigs than Commercial pigs. The carcass grades of Commercial pigs were mostly in A and B, C, and D in descending order, while the grades D or E were observed in most carcass of Black pigs. Barrow tended to be thicker in BFT and higher in BFT/CWT ratio than gilt both in Commercial and Black pigs, and gilt were higher in loin depth (LD) and Estimated Lean Yield Percentage (ELP) which were available only in the data by machine evaluation of Commercial pigs. Residual correlation coefficient (+0.496) between carcass weight and back fat thickness in Black pigs did not differ from those in Commercial pigs which were +0.434 and +0.414 in the data by manual and machine evaluation, respectively. The linear regression coefficients of back fat thickness on carcass weight were +0.364 mm in Black pigs, and +0.257 mm (manual evaluation) and +0.236 (machine evaluation) in Commercial pigs, which suggests relative accumulation rate of BFT to the growth of weight was faster in Black pigs than Commercial pigs.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orvus es paste(OEP) on the sperm characteristics during freezing in boar semen. Semen quality was evaluated the motility, membrane integrity, mitochondria function, acrosome status, viability and abnormality. Boar semen were frozen until 5℃ for 2 hours using cell freezer and making the straws, and then freezing by lowing the straws into styrofoam box on the 8cm above the LN2 and plunged into LN2 for cryopreservation. In different concentration of OEP (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0%) into cryo-extender, sperm motility, membrane integrity, acrosome status, viability and mitochondria function were significantly higher in 0.5% OEP than those of any other groups, but sperm abnormality were highest in 1.0% OEP group among all treatment groups (P<0.05). In the relationships of the evaluation methods for sperm viability, CBB vs membrane integrity, CBB vs HO/PI and CBB vs mitocondria function were positively correlated (0.67~0.92). Among the evaluation methods, CBB vs membrane integrity, CBB vs HO/PI and CBB vs mitocondria function were significantly correlated (P<0.001). These results of this study indicate that supplementation of 0.5% OEP in boar semen cryo-extender can improve the semen quality.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of periods of sperm preincubation, concentrations and storage periods of miniature pig sperm on in vitro penetration of porcine follicular oocytes. High concentration (1×105, 2.5×105, 5×105, 1×106, 5×106 and 1×107) did support sperm penetration than low concentrations (P<0.05). However, polyspermic oocyte rates were increased with high concentrations of sperm. On the other hand, sperm preincubated during 1, 2 or 5h could be penetrated than sperm preincubated during 0, 3 or 4h (P<0.05). When sperm were storaged with different periods, in vitro pentration rates were significantly higher 0～2 days than 3～4 days of sperm storage (p<0.05). These results indicate that sperm treatment factors can effect in vitro penetration in miniature pig.
Wood vinegar, an extract from Acer Tegmentosum Maximowicz, was evaluated for its hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic properties by using normal and diabetic rats. The extract was dissolved in water and administered daily for six or seven weeks. In experiment 1, thirty normal Sprague- Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into five treatments of 6 rats each. The treatments were T1 (mineral water), T2 (mineral water), T3 (silver solution), T4 (wood vinegar), and T5 (silver solution + wood vinegar) and diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin except T1. In experiment 2, sixteen diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats were randomly divided into four treatments of 4 rats each. The treatments were T1 (mineral water), T2 (silver solution), T3 (wood vinegar), and T4 (silver solution + wood vinegar). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed less body weight gain, more food intake and less water consumption as compared with normal non-diabetic rats. Oral administration of wood vinegar resulted in more weight gain, lower blood glucose concentration and urine pH among all the diabetic rats. In experiment 2, diabetic GK rats administrated with wood vinegar showed higher weight gain, food intake and less water intake when compared with control. However, supplementation with wood vinegar did not result in any decrease of blood glucose concentrations. It could be concluded that wood vinegar extracted from Acer Tegmentosum Maximowicz exerted hypoglycemic effect in diabetic-induced normal rats, but not in diabetic GK rats.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of addition of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the color and lipid oxidation of ground chicken during refrigerated storage. The leg meat from 6 weeks-broiler was chopped and added with 4% of distilled water (control) and AGE, respectively, and then stored at 4±0.2℃ for 8 days. The commercial garlic was aged for the relatively short time (40-90℃/300 hr →natural dryness/40 hr→20-30℃/30-50 hr). The pH value was not significantly different between control and AGE-added chicken. The TBARS level of chicken was remarkably inhibited by addition of AGE during storage. In CIE color values, AGE-added chicken showed lower L* and higher b*, C* and Ho values than those of control during storage. Therefore, the addition of AGE in ground chicken enhanced the lipid oxidative stability and change to dark color.