The long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus) is classified as 'vulnerable' by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and has been designated an endangered species requiring conservation and management in Korea. The sex determination region of the Y (SRY) gene is a useful marker for the study of paternal lineages; however, the SRY gene of the goral has not yet been sequenced. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the SRY gene of long-tailed gorals was determined based on the sequence of the SRY gene of goats (Capra hircus). The obtained sequences were aligned with those of other species in the Bovidae family. The long-tailed goral SRY gene comprised 720 base pairs, and its nucleotide and protein sequences were identical to those of goats, sheep (Ovis aries), and cattle (Bos taurus) by 96%, 97%, and 93%, respectively. The results of phylogenetic insights obtained from this study constitute important references for genetic diversity and pedigrees studies of male long-tailed gorals and closely related species.
The long-tailed goral (Naemorhedus caudatus) is an endangered animal species in all its habitats worldwide, including South Korea. The imbalanced sex ratio in fragmented habitats is closely associated with extinction. Therefore, sex identification using wild animal samples would be necessary. However, only a few studies have been reported about the sex identification of gorals. In this study, we thus aimed at comparing the efficiency of sex identification using various goral sample types as templates and the amelogenin (AMEL) and DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) genes as target sequences. We extracted DNA from goral feces, tissues, and blood samples, then amplified the AMEL (SE47/SE48 and SE47/SE53 primer pairs) and DDX3 genes for sex identification, comparing the goral DDX3X and DDX3Y target sequences to those in cattle. Our results indicated that the tissue- and blood sample-derived AMEL amplicons showed an unspecific band pattern containing the sex-specific band in the case of both primer pairs we used, whereas the DDX3 amplicon showed only the sex-specific band. In the case of the feces samples, only the sex-specific band was amplified using both the AMEL and DDX3 primer pairs. However, we found that the DDX3 amplicon exhibited a clearer band pattern than the AMEL amplicon. Then, we compared the DDX3X and DDX3Y target sequences between cattle and gorals. We found 5 and 8 nucleotide differences in the DDX3X and DDX3Y sequences, respectively. In conclusion, the DDX3 gene-related sex identification of the long-tailed goral appears to be more efficient and precise than the AMEL gene-related approach. This method could be used for the sex identification of the members of the Bovidae family.
In Korea, ecological research on the goral is underway to restore and increase population size of these ungulates, but clinical research on gorals species is still in its infancy. Owing to the nature of the gorals’ habitat, several animals live together within limited areas; so, the risk of parasitic infection is very high. In this study, we performed physical examination of 17 gorals undergoing breeding and restoration at the Korean Goral Restoration Center. Weight, ear height, horn length, withers height of the anthropometric data of this study were no differences from other researchers. Blood samples from each species were analyzed. There was no significant difference among individuals in terms each value examined, although some hematological and biochemical values, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, glucose and amylase showed differences among individuals. The average values of blood tests in gorals ware lower in lymphocytes, blood urea nitrogen, and calcium than in livestock goats, and hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and glucose were higher in livestock. Helminth eggs were detected in 15 out of 17 gorals by microscopic examination of their fecal samples, and Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides spp. were detected in all the gorals. However, there may be cases of death due to diarrhea, which may lead to a decrease in growth and production. Therefore, proper prevention and treatment are needed. These results may serve as an important reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of gorals. This information helps further understand the current health status of these species and may contribute to a more systematic restoration of the gorals.
췌담도 질환의 진단과 치료에 있어서 POC의 역할은 커지 고 있으나 발생 가능한 합병증에 대한 충분한 연구와 경험이 부족한 상태이다. 본 저자들은 총담관 결석을 치료하기 위해 POC를 통한 EHL 후 복통과 함께 간위에 국한되어 자유 공기 소견이 보여 천공 진단 하에 보존적 치료 후 호전되었던 증례를 경험하였다. 그동안 POC의 합병증으로 본 증례와 같은 천공이 보고된 바가 없기 때문에 문헌 고찰과 함께 보고 한다.
The purpose of this study is to suggest developing plans for 6 beef brands in Kangwon-do. Data were collected by consumer survey on 12th August, 2010 at Daemyung Resort in Hongcheongun. A total of 658 questionnaires were distributed and collected. SAS 9.1 and Excel 2007 were used as statistical packages and ordered logit model was used as a model to analyze the data. From the results of the study the following improvement plans were suggested for the 6 beef brands in Kangwon-do. First, the 6 beef brand agents should use public relation to give information for consumers. Clean image of Kangewon-do and clear distribution process should be stressed for the public relation. Second, promotion is an important tool to discriminate the 6 beef brands with other beef brands. The discrimination by the 6 beef brands should be focused on taste of the 6 beef brands. Third, market segmentation strategies are needed. The market segmentation may be achieved by segmentation of sales places.
This study was operated to establish induction using ultrasonography by estimating the relation of follicle size and estrus manifestation. Clinical estrus symptoms were observed 97.4% in cows and 87.5% in heifers when overall 55 cows were induced to estrus in a single dose of after verifying CL through ultrasonography, which means estrus hours among those 52 cows showing the clinical estrus symptoms were estimated 2.39 days on cows and for 2.37 days on heifers which showed no differences (p>0.05). The estrus manifestation hours according to the follicle size in cows didn't have any significance each other (p>0.05), though estrus hours was 54 hours (the shortest) with follicle size bigger than 10 mm and were made up within 69 hours. The estrus manifestation hours according to the follicle size in heifers didn't have any significance each other (p>0.05) and took around 42 hours (the shortest) with follicle size of 5mm (the smallest) and were made up within 66 hours. Follicles after injection were ovulated and assigned to many phases as follows; Group 1 (growing phase) - continuously growing into ovulation, Group 2 (growing and static phase) - delaying in growth after the growth of follicles, Group 3 (static and growing phase) - growing after growth delay, Group 4 (regressing and new growing phase) - the follicle is closed and a new follicle grows. In addition, the process of follicle development and estrus hours had no significance each other (p>0.05), though estrus manifestation hours in Group 1 and 2 was relatively short, and in Group 3 and 4 for a relatively long time. In the result of all above, the estrus manifestation hours after injection has no differences accoring to the follicle size in cows and heifers. Therefore, High pregnancy rate is obtained when practicing artificial insemination within 3 days in estrus or TAI in 72 to 80 hours after adminitrating .
This study was carried out to develop the useful inducing method of estrus for Korean native cows. Under the condition of estrus induction by administering for the cows in which corpus luteum (CL) in ovaries was detected by ultrasonography, ovarian responses and the changes of progesterone () concentration against compared with conception rate were observed in cows and heifers. In inducing estrus administering . to the cows which has corpus luteum in ovaries, ovarian reponses, the changes of progesterone concentration, and conception rate were identified and compared. The results attained from the studies were as follows. Significant decreases of CL in size over time after administration were detected in both cow and heifer groups (p<0.001), but not different between groups in the CL regression rate (p>0.05). In addition, the percentage changes relative to the plasma concentration on day 1 after treatment were decreased to below 1ng/ml. The growth rate of follicle was observed as 31% on day 1 and 42% on day 2 in cows, and 34% on day 1 and 97% on day 2 in heifers, resulting that growth of heifers are faster than that of cows (p<0.05). The conception rate after treatment were 60.5% and 64.2% in cows and heifers, respectively. It also indicated that the conception rate after estrus observation with injection was as high as 66.6% while that with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) regardless of the estrus observation was 56%, which means the pregnancy rate of artificial insemination after estrus observation was higher than that of TAI (p<0.05). In the result of all above, there were significant decreases in CL size and the plasma concentration by days but rapid growth in follicles, which has no differences in cows and heifers. The conception rate was commonly high after estrus observation and more than 50% under TAI.
This study investigated potential relationship between fetal deaths and plasma progesterone concentrations of bitches. Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed on small-pet 23 dogs from gestation day (GD) 15 through parturition. The dogs were 3 non-pregnant bitches, 9 spontaneous delivery bitches, 6 partial early embryonic death bitches, 2 whole early embryonic death bitches, and 3 aborted bitches. The late pregnancy (GD 51-54) appeared in 2 of the 3 aborted bitches and the hypoluteoidism appeared in 1 of the 3 aborted bitches. The plasma progesterone concentrations of partial early embryonic death bitches (n=6) showed no significant difference when compared with the spontaneous delivery bitches. We observed that plasma progesterone concentrations were dramatic decrease before the onset of embryonic death in whole early embryonic death bitches that plasma progesterone concentrations of aborted bitches at late pregnancy were significantly decreased when compared with those of spontaneous delivery bitches. The plasma progesterone concentrations of the hypoluteoidism bitch were lower than those of spontaneous delivery bitches. At the hypoluteoidism bitch, fetuses were resorbed in early pregnancy and aborted in late pregnancy. On the basis of the results, the diagnosis of partial early embryonic death could not be confirmed without ultrasonographic examination. The partial early embryonic death was considered a spontaneous phenomenon and uncorrelated with plasma progesterone concentration. However, aborted bitches and whole early embryonic death bitches were related to plasma progesterone concentrations and that of bitches gradually decreased before fetal death. These findings suggest that administration of progesterone may be a useful preventing agent against fetal death.
In this research, the welding experiment was carried out with both the steel materials (SS400+SS400, SUS304+SUS304) and the different steel materials (SS400+ SUS304), where SS400 is a general structural rolled steel material and SUS304 is a cold strip stainless steel sheet. The average of yield point of a SS400 experimental piece was the most highest point with 2015.54 N/m2. Although welding defects were not found with the naked eye, it was sure that there were some wilding defects because there were no stress against load through experiments. The rate of yield point of experimental piece A, experimental piece B and experimental piece C was respectively 1.7mm, 1.3mm and 2.6mm. The rate of breakdown was respectively 39.77mm, 17.97mm and 2.6mm. So considering price and efficiency with use condition is very important. SS400 and SUS304 will be profited from considering price and mechanical property with use condition.
This study was carried out the normal serial ultrasonographic appearance of the postpartum uterine involution with small pet bitches. Postpartum changes in uterine shape, architecture, echogenicity and diameter were monitored with ultrasonography in small pet bitches (Miniature Schnauzer, Cocker Spaniel and Shih-tzu). In the Miniature Schnauzer bitches, uterine diameter of the placental sites and interplacental sites were decreased from at 1 day to at 7 day, and at 1 day to at 7 day postpartum. In the Cocker Spaniel, the placental sites and interplacental sites were decreased from at 1 day to at 7 day, and at 1 day to at 7 day postpartum. In the Shih-tzu, the placental sites and interplacental sites were decreased from at 1 day to at 7 day, and at 1 day to at 7 day postpartum. And uterine diameter was no statistically significant difference among bitches (p>0.05). At 67 days, the uterine diameter in Miniature Schnauzer bitches were 6~7 mm both placental and interplacental sites, and the uterine horns showed uniform hypoechoic, tubular structures without enlargement. In present study, the involution of the uterus was completed at 67 days after parturition in Miniature Schnauzer, and 65 days in Cocker Spaniel and the Shih-tzu. There were no significant differences of normal postpartum uterine involution between small pet bitches (p>0.05). In conclusion, the postpartum involution of small pet bitches appeared to be completed normally at 65~67 days after parturition and could be identified by gross findings such as vaginal discharges and ultrasonographic findings of uterine shape and echogenicity.
To investigate the change of vaginal epithelial cell in estrus-induced Shih-tzu bitch, estrus was induced by PMSG (50 IU/kg, for 10 days) and hCG (1,000 IU, on Day 10) in 12 anestrus Shih-tzu bitches. Day-changes of vaginal epithelial cells during the whole period of hormone treatment were investigated in each experimental bitches. The first day of vulvar bleeding and the first day of male acceptant was on days (), and days after the first PMSG treatment. The duration of proestrus and estrus was days, and days. Characteristic features of vaginal cytology during the estrous cycle were the high proportion of large intermediate cell, superficial cell, anuclear cell and erythrocyte in proestrus, superficial cell and anuclear cell in estrus, and parabasal cell, small and large intermediate cell, and leukocyte in diestrus, respectively. When it was timed from the first day of PMSG administration (Day 0), the cornification index (CI) was the high proportion in proestrus and estrus. The CI peak was maintained above 80% between Day 11~14 (4 days) and CI showed a peak at Day 12. These results indicated that the 12 Shih-tzu bitches showed positive estrus induction by vaginal smear test and observation of clinical estrus sign.
The specimens from 32 aborted fetus and 274 aborted cows were collected in 168 farms of Chonnam province from 2005 to 2008 and were tested the brucellosis. The results obtained are summarized as follows. In the 32 aborted fetus, bovine brucellosis was detected in 12 heads (37.5%), bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease was detected in 7 heads (19%), ainovirus infection was detected in 1 head (3.1%), and multi-infection of BVD and brucellosis was not detected, respectively. In the 306 cases of aborted fetus and cows, bovine brucellosis was detected in 44 heads (14%). Status of abortion were confirmed in 63 farms (38%) out of 168 farms from June to August. From the point of raising scale, studies found that 128 farms (76%) out of all raised under 20 heads. The incidence of abortion by brucellosis was mainly showed in 30 heads (68.1%) about 151~250 days of gestation. In the result of the 18 farms survey, the causes of infections were detected movement of infected cattle in 5 farms (28%), unknown cause in 12 farms (67%), and recurrence in 1 farm (5%). The results of this study suggest to take an advantage of the prevention and fundamental research for bovine brucellosis in Chonnam province.
Ultrasonographic examination was performed to observe the ultrasonographic image of Korean native cows' normal uterus in condition of in vitro and in vivo. The experiment was done 28 slaughtered cows' uterus using immersed in water in vitro, and 41 healthy breeding cows taken rectal ultrasonography in vivo. Ultrasonographic examination of uterine was taken on the reference of cross section of intercornual ligaments' cranial. Each uterus on the experiments was compared by estrous cycle and ultrasonographic frequency. The uterine structure using ultrasonography was 5 layers of uterine horn in vivo as well as in vitro. Uterine horn was observed to be distinguished from inside to outside as endometrium to inner echogenic layer, circular muscle layer to slightly echogenic elliptical layer, stratum vasculare to central echogenic layer, longitudinal muscle layer to slightly echogenic arched layer, and perimetrium to outer echogenic layer, respectively. According to the observation of uterus related to estrous cycle and ultrasonographic examination, uterine endometrium in vitro was constantly founded irrespective of estrous cycle and ultrasonographic frequency. On the low frequency, endometrium and circular muscle layer in estrus were prone to distinguished than in diestrus. On the high frequency, endometrium and circular muscle layer were always distinguished regardless of estrous cycle. In vivo, uterine endometrium and circular muscle layer were observed regardless of estrus and ultrasonographic frequency. On the low frequency, stratum vasculare and longitudinal muscle layer were not likely to be distinguished in diestrus, but estrus. On the high frequency, stratum vasculare and longitudinal muscle layer were observed regardless of estrous cycle. Also, every uterine structure was easily distinguished on high frequency than low frequency owing to precision of distinction in layers. The difference of results followed by the experiments conditions between in vitro and in vivo was that uterine endometrium and circular muscle layer in diestrus in vitro were difficult to be distinguished and uterine lumen was observed during whole estrous cycle. In vivo, It was founded that the distinction of stratum vasculare and logitudinal muscle layer in diestrus was complicated and uterine lumen was observed during only estrus. In view of the result so far achieved, normal uterine structure divided in 5 layers on ultrasonography was accorded with microscopic organization, uterine structure was likely to be observed during estrus than diestrus, high frequency checkup than low frequency, and uterine endometrium, circular muscle, stratum vasculare was easily observed regardless of estrous cycle and ultrasonographic frequency.
Serial ultrasonography was conducted on Miniature Schnauzer bitches, on purpose to observe the ultrasonographic appearance of normal ovaries and ovarian structures during the estrous cycle. The size of ovaries was increased from on Day-12 (Day-0=ovulation day) to on Day-8 and there was no significantly different between both ovaries. The ovaries were recognized by its proximity to the caudal renal pole and appeared moderately echogenic oval shape with a smooth contour. The size of follicles was increased from on Day-12 to on Day-0 and there was no significantly different between both ovaries. The number of follicles was increased from on Day-12 to on Day-0 and there was no significantly different between both ovaries. The follicles were small anechoic fluid-filled structures in early of proestrus, more increased, and indistinguished from each follicles in late of proestrus. The size of corpora lutea was increased from on Day-0 to on Day-8 and there was no significantly different between both ovaries. The number of corpora lutea was increased from on Day-0 to on Day-38 and there was no significantly different between both ovaries. The corpora lutea were small anechoic cavity and thin hyperechoic wall in early of diestrus, became more hyperechoic, and increased homogenous structures. The results of this study would be useful for differential diagnosis between normal and abnormal structures of ovaries.
Serial ultrasonographic examinations were performed to establish a prediction table of parturition date in pregnant Maltese, Yorkshire Terrier, Shih-tzu and Miniature Schnauzer bitches. The inner chorionic cavity diameter and fetal head diameter in 45 pregnant bitches were converted retrospectively based on the day of parturition. The data of inner chorionic cavity diameter obtained from Day-44 to Day-25 and fetal head diameter obtained from Day-25 to Day-1 were used to compile a equations of prediction of parturition date. The 70 pregnant bitches with unknown mating time were examined to assess an accuracy of the equations established in this study. And these results were applied to the prediction of parturition date and compared to actual parturition date. The accuracy for parturition date within 0, 1, and 2 days interval using the equations of prediction of parturition date were 64.3%, 22.8% and 12.8%, respectively. The overall accuracy of prediction table of parturition day based on the ICCD and HD was 100% accurate within 2 days. Therefore, the prediction table seems to be a useful tool of the prediction of parturition day in practice.
Serial ultrasonographic examinations were daily performed from 15 days after ovulation until parturition to determine the growth curve of gestational structures in pregnant Maltese, Yorkshire terrier, Shih-tzu, and Miniature Schnauzer bitches, respectively. Gestational age was timed from the day of ovulation (day 0), which was estimated to occur when plasma progesterone concentration was first increased above 4.0 ng/ml. The inner chorionic cavity diameter were significantly and linearly relative to gestational age especially days 20 to 40, and the fetal head diameter were significantly and linearly relative to gestational age especial1y day 40 to parturition. These results indicate that inner chorionic cavity diameter were the most accurate for estimating gestational age before day 38 of gestation and the fetal head diameter were after day 38 of gestation.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orvus es paste(OEP) on the sperm characteristics during freezing in boar semen. Semen quality was evaluated the motility, membrane integrity, mitochondria function, acrosome status, viability and abnormality. Boar semen were frozen until 5℃ for 2 hours using cell freezer and making the straws, and then freezing by lowing the straws into styrofoam box on the 8cm above the LN2 and plunged into LN2 for cryopreservation. In different concentration of OEP (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0%) into cryo-extender, sperm motility, membrane integrity, acrosome status, viability and mitochondria function were significantly higher in 0.5% OEP than those of any other groups, but sperm abnormality were highest in 1.0% OEP group among all treatment groups (P<0.05). In the relationships of the evaluation methods for sperm viability, CBB vs membrane integrity, CBB vs HO/PI and CBB vs mitocondria function were positively correlated (0.67~0.92). Among the evaluation methods, CBB vs membrane integrity, CBB vs HO/PI and CBB vs mitocondria function were significantly correlated (P<0.001). These results of this study indicate that supplementation of 0.5% OEP in boar semen cryo-extender can improve the semen quality.
본 연구는 내분비계 장애물질인 BPA와 DEHP가 돼지 정액 성상(운동성, 생존율, 원형질막의 정상성, 기형율)에 유해한 영향을 미치는지를 검토하였다. 일정 농도로 희석한 돼지 정액에 BPA와 DEHP를 각각 0, 1, 10, 100 μM의 농도로 처리하여 3, 6, 9시간 동안 체외배양을 실시하였다. BPA 처리에 따른 운동성과 생존율은 체외배양 시간과 첨가농도에 따라 감소하였으며, 체외배양시간이 경과함에 따라 대조구와 명백한 차이를 나타냈다. 100 μM의 농도로 처리한 경우의 운동성과 생존율은 체외배양시간에 관계없이 처리군이 대조구에 비해 유의적으로 감소하였다(p<0.05). DEHP 처리에 따른 정자의 운동성과 생존율도 체외배양시간과 첨가농도에 따라 감소하여 BPA의 성적과 유사한 경향을 나타냈다. 정자원형질막의 기능성은 배양시간에 따라 감소하였으며 BPA 및 DEHP 첨가농도 간에 차이가 인정되었으며, 특히 100 μM 처리구에서 급격히 감소하는 성적을 나타났다. 정자의 기형율은 BPA 및 DEHP 처리시간 및 농도에 크게 영향을 받지는 않았다. 본 연구의 결과로 볼 때, 고농도의 BPA와 DEHP(>10 μM)에 정자의 장시간 노출은 유해한 영향을 줄 것으로 사료된다.
전국 65개 시군에 소재하는 착유우 20두 이상 규모의 760개 목장에서 85,983두를 대상으로 초음파 번식 검진 및 치료를 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 번식 검진우 85,983두 중 난소 질병이 40,399(47.0 %)로 가장 많았으며 자궁 질병 11,912두(13.9%), 임신 및 임신기 사고가 26,587두(30.9%), 난소나 자궁의 유착이 172두(0.2%), 프리마틴 8두(0.01%)그리고 분만 후 50일 이내로서 정상적인 발정
Shit-tzu견에서 발정 주기, 교배 적기 및 배란 시기를 정확하게 추정하기 위한 질 세포 검사를 확립하기 위하여 Shih-tzu 견 12두를 대상으로 발정 주기동안 질 세포 검사 및 estradiol-와 progesterone 농도를 측정하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 발정주기별 질 세포상의 특징적인 변화로서 발정 전기에는 무핵 세포와 적혈구, 발정기에는 표층 세포와 무핵 세포 및 적혈구가 주종을 이루는 세포였으며 발정 휴지기에는 소형 중간 세포와