The melanocortin receptor type 4 (MC4R) gene is expressed in the hypothalamus and regulates energy intake and body weight. Recently, it has been reported that obesity and energy balance in human were also regulated by the MC4R gene. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the polymorphism on the MC4R gene SNP C1786T and its association with economic traits in Korean native cattle (brindle and black cattle) by PCR-RFLP. A total of 125 cattle from the two breeds were tested for economic traits (meat quality index, backfat, thickness, carcass weight, longissimus muscle area and marbling score) and data was analyzed using SAS program. In the results, C allele had highest frequency than G allele frequency in the both breeds and the gene was significantly associated with meat quantity index and backfat thickness in brindle cattle breed. However, in black cattle, the gene was significantly associated with longissimus muscle area (p<0.05). These results suggest that C1786T SNP of the MC4R gene may be useful as a genetic marker for economic traits in the brindle and black cattle.
The aim of this study is to investigate the genetic interrelationships between economic or meat quality traits (birth weight, weaning weight, average daily gain, market weight, carcass weight, backfat thickness, water, ash, fat, protein, water holding capacity and pH) and 6 SNPs located on six selected candidate genes (MC4R, PGK2, TNNI1, TNNI2, PIK3C3, and CTSK) in Korean native pigs. The genotypes were identified in the 6 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure, and association of the genotype on economically important traits was analyzed by general liner model. According to the analyzed results, the MC4R c.1426A>G was correlated with birth weight (p=0.032) and the PGK2 g.122T>G was associated with pH (p=0.026). These findings obtained in the present revealed that the each SNPs of MC4R and PGK2 could be useful as potential genetic markers for birth weight and pH in Korean native pigs, respectively.
The role of Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene is critical for lipid metabolism and for maintaining homeostasis in adipocytes. Association between Hanwoo carcass traits and FABP4 gene g.7516G>C SNP has been reported previously, however, its association and how does it influence Korean brindle and black cattle has not been demonstrated and established till date. For this purpose, the study was planned to analyze the SNP association (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) (g.7516G>C) in FABP4 gene and gather genetic information on economic traits of Korean brindle cattle and black cattle. As per sequence of bovine FABP4 gene available (Genbank accession No. NC_007312.4), one pair of primers (5’-ATA TAG TCC ATA GGG TGG CAA AGA-3’ and 5’-AAC CTC TCT TTG AAT TCT CCA TTC T-3’) was designed to amplify a 452bp product of the FABP4 gene including the region of 7417–7868. The SNP, detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 117 animals of brindle cattle and 24 animals of black cattle population. Statistical analysis revealed that the FABP4 genotype significantly (p<0.05) affect with carcass weight, but there was no significant association with any other economic traits was observed in brindle as well as in black cattle. In conclusion, these results suggested that SNP (g.7516G>C), located in FABP4 gene, could be used as important DNA marker of economic traits in Korean brindle cattle. Furthermore, we suggest that additional samples needs to further analysed to make related data exclusively authentic.
The study was conducted to investigate the comparison of pregnancy rate and transferable embryos produced by genetically superior Korean cows (Hanwoo) of livestock farms. Eighteen Hanwoo donors were superovulated with gonadotropin for 4 days combined with Progesterone Releasing Intravaginal. Embryos were recovered 7 days after the second insemination by flushing the uterus with embryo collection medium. No differences were observed in the efficiency of rate of superovulation in groups A (low nutrition) and B (highnutrition) it was observed to be 100.0% and 87.5%, respectively. The mean numbers of total embryos were 10.8±3.4 and 8.9±2.5, and transferable embryos were 7.5±3.3 and 4.0±1.5 in groups A and B, respectively. The pregnancy rates after embryo transfer were 23.5%, 20.0%, C 80.0% and 55.6% in farm A, B, C, and D, respectively. In conclusion, results suggest that superovulation could be used quite effectively to raise superior Hanwooembryos. However, physical and biological condition of recipients greatly affects the rate of pregnancy.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural fermented phytogenics on fecal odour and performance in laying hens. The natural fermented phytogenics (NFP) was prepared by the fermentation of probiotics with a mixed herb of ginkgo leaf, mandarin peel, wormwood, ginger, licorice and tangleweed (30:7:10:3:5:15), and fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus acidophillus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 4 days at room temperature. To evaluate the efficacy of fecal odour reduction by NFP, the experiment was carried out on layer's dropping by in vitro fermentation with a mix of feces and distilled water (6:2), and NH3 and H2S gas production during the fermentation was measured. The productions of NH3 and H2S gas were significantly lower in NFP treatment group than those of control during the in vitro fermentation (p<0.05). To measure the effects of NFP on laying performance, the experiment was carried out with a total of sixty, 46-wk-old Lohmann brown layers for 4 weeks after the pre-experiment periods of two weeks. They were randomly divided into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 10 birds each. The treatments were control group which fed basal diet, and NFP group which fed basal diet added with 0.1% NFP. Hen-day egg production of NFP group was significantly increased compared to control (p<0.05). Also, soft & broken egg production was apparently reduced by NFP addition (p<0.05). Egg weight was not different between two groups but trended to be higher in NFP group than the control. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, eggshell color, yolk color and Haugh unit were not different between NFP group and control group. Overall, the above results showed that natural fermented phytogenics, prepared by fermented functional herbs with probiotics, have ability for reducing fecal order and improving egg production in laying hens.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Chromium-Methionine (Cr-Met) chelate feeding for different durations on growth and carcass characteristics in the late fattening stage of Holstein steers. Nine Holstein steers were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (3 head per treatment) including Non Cr-Met chelate feeding (NCM, av. BW of 433.3 kg), Cr-Met chelate feeding for 2 months (2CM, av. BW of 459.6 kg), and Cr-Met chelate feeding for 4 months (4CM, av. BW of 490.0 kg), respectively. The feeding amount of Cr-Met chelate to an animal was limited to 400 ppb/day. Dry matter intake showed no differences among all the treatments (p>0.05). Average daily gain was also higher in the animals fed Cr-Met chelate diets than NCM (p<0.05). Carcass weights were also observed to be higher in Cr-Met chelate feeding treatments, especially in 4CM compared with other treatments (p<0.05). Although no significant differences were observed on back fat thickness and rib eye area(p<0.05), but 4CM showed much higher effects than NCM and 2CM. Marbling score meat color, fat color, texture, and maturity were not affected by treatments (p>0.05). The variations in meat quality were smaller in 4CM compared to other treatments. 4CM showed higher total and net income than other treatments (p<0.05). Therefore, the current study concluded that Cr-Met chelate supplementation for 4 months could increase daily gain, carcass characteristics, and profitability of Holstein steers in the late fattening stage.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean curd residue as an ingredient of TMR on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers. Twenty four Holstein steers of 7 months age(average body weight 274.6 kg) were randomly allocated to 3 experimental groups, which contained 8animals per group during 15-months feeding trial. The treatments composed of the group fed concentrate and rice straw separately (Control), the group fed TMR containing low levels of soybean curd (T1), the group fed TMR containing high levels of soybean curd residue (T2). Body weight and average daily gain were not significantly different among the treatment groups during the feeding trial periods. Feed intake was not differ among treatment groups, but feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in T2 group compared to T1 group during late fattening stage (p<0.05). However, it was not different in overall average. According to the yield traits, carcass weight of control, T1 and T2 were 466.4, 451.1 and 460.1 kg, respectively. Back fat thickness, rib eye area and yield index were not different among the groups. The marbling score, meat color, texture and maturity in quality traits were not different among the treatment groups, but fat color was significantly higher in T2 group compared to T1 group (p<0.05). The quality grade (1+:1:2:3, NO.) tended to be higher for T1(0:2:1:5) and T2 (0:1:4:3) compared with the control (0:0:3:5). Therefore, these results indicated that TMR with soybean curd residue may be appropriate the growth performance and carcass characteristics of Holstein steers.
This study was conducted to determine the growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening Hanwoo heifers slaughtered at different ages. Twenty one Hanwoo heifers were randomly allocated to three groups (32, 36 and 40 months age), with 7 steers each, respectively. In the result, initial and final body weights were 125.6 and 651.0 kg, respectively. Average daily gain was significantly low at final stage compared with other growth stages (p<0.05). Dry matter intake was the peak at the intermediate fattening stage (p<0.05). The feed conversion ratio was significantly lower at growing stage compared to other stages (p<0.05). In yield traits, carcass weight was greater in 40 months age group compared to other groups (p<0.05). Yield index was greater in 32 months group compared to 40 months of age (p<0.05). Marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, and maturity were not different among groups (p>0.05). However, marbling score tended to be increased in 40 months age group (5.9) compared to other groups. The appearance rate (%) of meat quality grade more than 1+ was greater at 40 months old group than other groups.
Jeongseon-gun had 892 Korean beef cattle farmers, and had 9,180 Korean beef cattle in September, 2010. Average fed cattle by farm was less than 20 heads. The small scale breeding ratio was higher than the case of Gangwon-do and the average country level. Jeongseon-gun tries to increase the beef cattle to 20,000 in oder to increase farm income. The purpose of the study is to analysis the farmer's intention to the increasing feed scale. Data were collected by questionnaire. Frequency analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to analyze. In the results of frequency analysis, about 92% respondents were agreed to expand the increasing scale to 20,000 heads. In order to accomplish the goal, about 63% respondents wanted complex for Korean native cattle breeding. About 62% respondents had intention to increase the feeding cattle heads. In the results of factor analysis, four factors were derived as "Government support", "Infrastructure construction", "Brand development" and "Construction logistics system". In the results of cluster analysis, three clusters were derived as "group that does not need support from the government", "group that needs construction of logistics system" and "group that needs support system".
The purpose of the livestock industry is to pursuit economic profits by increasing the economic productivity of livestock. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that is characterized by one variation out of every 1000 polymorphisms, to increase economical benefits in stock breeding has been extensively studied. Particularly, replete number of investigations have been put forward that has associated SNPs of candidate genes with economically important traits such as carcass weight (CW), longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BFT) and marbling score (MS) in beef cattle. Bovine genome sequencing and HapMap projects have provided, millions of SNPs in the cattle genome. However, till date studies related to the association of the SNPs with economic traits in beef cattles are meager. Discovering of SNPs bovine whole genome would certainly be useful genetic assets for the development of SNP marker for economically important traits in beef cattle.