The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and breeding values of four carcass traits of the Hanwoo cattle breed: carcass weight (CWT), back fat thickness (BFT), eye-muscle area (EMA), and marbling score (MAR). Genetic parameters and breeding values were estimated based on data (“estimating dataset”) collected from September 2004 to March 2019. Predictability of parental breeding value estimates (EBVs) for the performances of progeny of the control group was evaluated on another dataset (“testing dataset”) using linear model equations involving parental EBVs classified into sex and age groups. The parental EBVs of animals in the testing dataset were traced by pedigree relationships of animals in the estimating dataset. Heritability estimates of CWT, BFT, EMA, and MAR were 0.53, 0.43, 0.38, and 0.54, respectively. Genetic correlation coefficients of CWT with BFT, EMA, and MAR were +0.32, +0.59, and +0.11, respectively. Environmental correlation coefficients of CWT with BFT, EMA, and MAR were +0.46, +0.55, and +0.29, respectively. In the testing dataset, partial regression coefficients of phenotypic values of progeny on sire EBVs ranged from +0.43 to +0.60 depending on traits fit into the models, while those on dam EBVs ranged from +0.54 to +0.67. All partial regression coefficients were statistically significant and were approximated to the expected value of +0.5. Together, these values validate the use of parental EBVs for predicting progeny carcass phenotypes in the Hanwoo herd.
본 연구는 한우 도체형질에서 거세우 자료로 실시한 유전능력 평가결과가 암소 자료로 실시한 평가결 과와 차이가 있는지를 알아보기 위해서 도축 자료를 암소 자료와 거세우 자료로 분리해서 유전모수와 육종가를 추정함과 동시에 동일 형질의 암소 측정치와 거세우 측정치를 각각 다른 형질로 간주하고 각 형질 내에서 두 측정치간의 유전 상관계수를 추정하였다. 도체중, 등지방 두께, 등심 단면적 및 근내지 방도의 유전력은 암소 자료 추정치들이 각각 0.60, 0.46, 0.47 및 0.59 그리고 거세우 자료 추정치들이 각각 0.62, 0.54, 0.41 및 0.58로 도체중과 근내지방도에서는 두 자료의 추정치 간 차이가 없었으나 등지방 두께 유전력은 암소자료 추정치가 거세우 자료 추정치에 비해 8% 더 작고 등심 단면적 유전력은 암소자료 추정치가 6% 더 큰 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 같은 형질 내에서 추정한 암소 측정치와 거 세우 측정치간의 유전 상관계수는 도체중이 0.77, 등지방 두께가 0.79, 등심 단면적이 0.79, 그리고 근 내지방도가 0.87이었다. 한편 각 형질별로 계산한 암소 자료의 추정 육종가와 거세우 자료의 추정 육종 가간 순위 상관계수는 도축우 아비들이 0.45(도체중)에서 0.65(근내지방도)의 범위, 그리고 도축우 어미들이 0.29(도체중)에서 0.40(근내지방도)의 범위로 낮은 편이었다. 이러한 결과는 추정된 자료에 따라 씨수소나 씨암소의 선발 순위가 달라질 가능성이 있음을 시사한다.
본 연구는 2006년부터 2016년 사이에 강원도 축산기술연구소에서 출생한 한우 송아지 1,069두로부터 조사된 이유시 체중과 임신기간, 생시체중 및 포유기 일당증체량 및 이유시 체중을 이용하여 단순상관, 다중 회귀 및 경로분석 등을 통해 이유시 체중과 임신기간, 생시체중 및 포유기 일당증체량 간의 상관 관계를 규명하였다. 통계분석은 조사된 원 성적을 이용하여 실시하는 동시에 조사된 원 성적을 송아지 출생 연도-계절, 송아지의 성, 어미의 산차 및 이유일령(포유기 일당증체량과 이유시 체중에만 해당) 등과 같은 환경효과에 대해 보정한 값인 잔차를 이용해서도 실시하였다. 조사된 형질들 간의 상관계수는 모두 양수였는데, 임신기간은 생시체중과의 잔차상관계수가 +0.315로서 중정도 크기였던 반면 포유 기 일당증체량이나 이유시 체중과의 잔차상관계수는 각각 +0.039와 +0.130으로서 작거나 0에 가까운 값이었다. 이유시 체중은 포유기 일당증체량과의 잔차상관계수가 +0.949로서 생시체중과의 상관계수인 +0.323보다 컸다. 잔차를 이용한 경로분석 결과 이유시 체중의 변이에 미치는 임신기간, 생시체중 및 포유기 일당증체량의 전체 기여도는 각각 0, 0.095 및 0.892로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과, 임신기간, 생시 체중 및 포유기 일당증체량 중에서 포유기 일당증체량이 이유시 체중의 변이에 가장 큰 영향력을 미치는 형질인 것으로 나타났다.
For evaluating the boar semen quality, sperm motility is an important parameter because the movement of sperm indicates active metabolism, membrane integrity and fertilizing capacity. Phospholipase C zeta (PLCz) is important enzyme in spermatogenesis, but the effect has not been confirmed in pigs yet. Therefore, this study was aimed to analyze their association with sperm motility and kinematic characteristics. DNA samples from 124 Duroc pigs with records of sperm motility and kinematic characteristics [total motile spermatozoa (MOT), curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight-line velocity (VSL), the ratio between VSL and VCL (LIN), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH)] were subjected. A SNP in non-coding region of PLCz g.158 A > C was associated with MOT (p < 0.05), VCL (p < 0.01), LIN (p < 0.01) and ALH (p < 0.05) in Duroc population. Therefore, we suggest that the intron region of the porcine PLCz gene may be used as a molecular marker for Duroc boar semen quality, although its functional effect was not defined yet. Whether the association is due to the candidate gene or not require further verification. Thus, it will be of interest to continue association studies in the regions surrounding those genes.
For evaluating the boar semen quality, sperm motility (MOT) is an important parameter because the movement of spermatozoa indicates active metabolism, membrane integrity and fertilizing capacity. Estrogen receptors 2(ESR2) is involved in estrogen related apoptosis in cell cycle spermatogenesis, but their functions have not been confirmed in pig until now. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze their association with sperm motility and kinematic characteristics. DNA samples from 105 Duroc pigs with records of semen motility and kinematic characteristics [Total motile spermatozoa (MOT), Curvilinear velocity(VCL), Straight-line velocity(VSL), the ratio between VSL and VCL(LIN), Amplitude of Lateral Head displacement(ALH)] were analyzed. A SNP in coding region of ESR2 g.35547A > G in exon 5 was associated with MOT (p < 0.05) in Duroc population. Therefore, we suggest that the porcine ESR2 gene may be used as a molecular marker for Duroc boar semen quality, although its functional effects were not defined yet. These results might shed new light on the roles of ESR2 in spermatogenesis as candidate gene for boar fertility, but still the lack of association across populations should be considered.
Cluster-of-differentiation antigen 9 (CD9) gene expressed in the male germ line stem cells is crucial for sperm–egg fusion, and was therefore selected as a candidate gene to investigate Duroc boar semen motility and kinematic characteristics. This study was performed to investigatetheir association with semen motility and kinematic characteristics. DNA samples from 96 Duroc pigs with records of sperm motility and kinematic characteristics [Total motile spermatozoa (MOT, 82.27±5.58), Curvilinear velocity(VCL, 68.37±14.58), Straight-line velocity(VSL, 29.06±6.58), the ratio between VSL and VCL(LIN, 47.36±8.42), Amplitude of Lateral Head displacement(ALH, 2.88±0.70)] were used in present study. A single nucleotide polymorphism (g.358A>T) in intron 6 was associated with MOT, VCL, VAP and ALH in Duroc population (p<0.05). Therefore, we suggest that the porcine CD9 may be used as a molecular marker for Duroc boar semen quality, although its functional effect was not clear yet. These results will improve the understanding of the functions of the CD9 in spermatogenesis within the reproductive tracts, and will shed light on CD9 as a candidate gene in the selection of good sperm quality boars.
This study was conducted to analyze the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the equine chromosomes (ECA) 3 for the body conformations of 12 month of age in Jeju crossbred (Jeju horses × Thoroughbred). A total of 199 Jeju crossbred horse samples were obtained from the National Institute of Subtropical Livestock Research Institute for this study. To correctly estimate the body conformations, we measured thirteen elements relevant to the body conformation such as body weight, wither height, body length for all the 199 horses at 12 month of age. Furthermore, all the horses were genotyped using four SNPs including the BIEC2-808466, BIEC2-808543, BIEC2-808967, BIEC2-809370, of which genomic coordinates range approximately from 105.1Mbp to 110 Mbp in the ECA3. For the phenotypic data sets, the average body weight was 193.7 ± 24.5㎏ and the height was 124.5 ± 4.0㎝. As for the genotypic data, the miner allele frequencies of the SNPs were shown to be varied from 0.01 to 0.291. Using the phenotypic and genotypic data sets, analysis of covariance was performed to find any association between those SNP genotypes and body conformations, using year of birth, month of birth, sex, and parity as the covariance components. The result showed that alternative genotypes in the BIEC2-808967 and BIEC2-809370 SNPs were significantly associated with the body length (P<0.05) and the wither height (P<0.05) respectively in the Jeju crossbred horses. Therefore, it is estimated that there are significant associations in the body conformation of 12 month of age of Jeju crossbred for those two SNPs used in this study.
Value of excellent breeding animals is important in livestock industry, but their economic life time is limited. And, many countries have been trying procuration of genetic resource in good animals. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine embryo production and to test efficiency of embryo transfer via non-surgical artificial insemination (AI) in different breed of superior sows. A total of 17 sows were used in this experiment (Duroc, n=10; Landrace, n=4; Yorkshire, n=3). The sows were artificially inseminated by semen of same breed boars. After 4 or 5 days following the AI, the embryos were obtained from the sows and then transferred to Landrace and Yorkshire recipients (n=3, respectively) by non-surgical method. The corpora lutea tended to be increased in Yorkshire and Landrace than Duroc(28 and 26 vs. 17, respectively). The recovery of embryo was 78.8% in Landrace, 65.4% in Duroc and 51.4% in Yorkshire. Duroc showed lower morulaes and early blastocyst embryos than 2, 4 ,8 and 16 cell. The morula in Yorkshire was higher (P<0.05) than that of Duroc (4.7 vs. 3.4). Similarly, the morulaes and early blastocyst embryos presented greater (P<0.05) in Landrace compared with other breed sows. The recipient sows were pregnant in a Landrace only. This reason may be due to little embryos inserted in the recipients. In addition, pregnancy results were limited because of the little sows. In conclusion, ovulated ovum in sows can be affected by different breed. Also, further study needed pregnant test by using the many embryo in each breed.
PURPOSES : This study drew factors affecting motorcycle accidents in Seoul by severity using an ordered probit model and aimed to analyze and verify the drawn influence factors. METHODS: As the severity of the accidents could be classified into three types (fatal injury, serious injury and minor injury), this study drew the factors affecting accidents by a comparative analysis employing an ordered probit model, removed the variables that would not secure significance sequentially to construct a model with high explanatory power regarding the factors affecting the severity of motorcycle accidents, and calculated the marginal effect of each factor to understand the degree of each factor’s impact on the severity. First, Model 1 put in all variables; Model 2 was constructed by removing the variables of the road surface conditions that could not meet the level of significance (p=0.608); Model 3 was constructed by removing gender variable (p=0.423); and Model 4 was constructed finally by removing age variable (p=0.320). RESULTS : As a result of an analysis, statistically significant variables were time of occurrence, type of accident, road alignment and motorcycle displacement, and it turned out that the impacts on the severity were in the following order: a road alignment of left downhill, the type of motorcycle-to-vehicle accidents and a road alignment of a flatland on the left. The significance of the models was tested using the likelihood ratio, the level of significance and suitability statistics about them, and as a result of the test, the significance level and suitability of the constructed models were all excellent. In addition, the model accuracy indicating the accuracy of a predicted value compared to that of the value actually observed was 70.3% for minor injury; 70.1% for serious injury; and 68.6% for fatal injury, and the overall accuracy was 70.2%, which was very high. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of an analysis of motorcycle accidents in Seoul through the ordered probit model and the marginal effect, it turned out that their severity increased in nighttime accidents as compared to daytime ones and gradually increased in the order of motorcycleto- vehicle accidents, motorcycle-to-person ones and the ones involving motorcycle only. As a result of an analysis, the severity of accidents in road alignments of left downhill, left flatland and straight downhill increased as compared to those in a road alignment of straight flatland and that the severity of accidents of motorcycles with a displacement larger than 50cc was higher than that of those with a displacement smaller than 50cc.
본 논문에서는 공공연구개발사업의 기술파급측정을 위한 이론적/방법론적 기반을 제공하기 위하여 기술파급현상을 고찰하고 이를 측정하는 방법론에 관하여 논의하고자 한다. 본 논문은 다음과 같이 구성된다. 첫째, 일반적인 기술파급메커니즘에 관하여 논의하며 파급현상 및 파급경로를 정리한다. 둘째, 기존에 문헌들에서 사용된 주요 방법론을 소개하고 방법론의 장단점을 논의한다. 셋째, 방법론과 기술파급현상에 대한 이해를 기반으로 기술파급현상과 측정의 문제를 고찰한다. 마지막으로 공공연구개발 사업의 기술파급효과 측정을 위한 선행조건을 제시한다. 본 논문의 목적은 연구자 및 정책입안자들에게 기술파급현상과 측정에 관한 이해를 넓히고 여러 방법론으로 측정된 기술파급측정의 결과를 올바르게 평가를 할 수 있도록 하기 위해서이다. 본 연구는 향후 공공연구개발 사업의 파급효과를 측정하고자 할 때 방법론적 한계를 인식하여 파급현상과 측정 결과의 간극(gap)을 인지하여 이를 기반으로 더 향상된 측정 방법을 고안하는데 도움을 줄 것이다.
The role of Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene is critical for lipid metabolism and for maintaining homeostasis in adipocytes. Association between Hanwoo carcass traits and FABP4 gene g.7516G>C SNP has been reported previously, however, its association and how does it influence Korean brindle and black cattle has not been demonstrated and established till date. For this purpose, the study was planned to analyze the SNP association (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) (g.7516G>C) in FABP4 gene and gather genetic information on economic traits of Korean brindle cattle and black cattle. As per sequence of bovine FABP4 gene available (Genbank accession No. NC_007312.4), one pair of primers (5’-ATA TAG TCC ATA GGG TGG CAA AGA-3’ and 5’-AAC CTC TCT TTG AAT TCT CCA TTC T-3’) was designed to amplify a 452bp product of the FABP4 gene including the region of 7417–7868. The SNP, detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods using restriction enzyme MspA1I, was genotyped in 117 animals of brindle cattle and 24 animals of black cattle population. Statistical analysis revealed that the FABP4 genotype significantly (p<0.05) affect with carcass weight, but there was no significant association with any other economic traits was observed in brindle as well as in black cattle. In conclusion, these results suggested that SNP (g.7516G>C), located in FABP4 gene, could be used as important DNA marker of economic traits in Korean brindle cattle. Furthermore, we suggest that additional samples needs to further analysed to make related data exclusively authentic.
Since the Bovine sequencing and HapMap projects, there have been millions of genetic variations particularly including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) available throughout the cattle genome. While cataloguing substantial amounts of SNPs, copy number variation (CNV) has recently become getting great attention as an another form of genetic variation which is extensively distributed across the cattle genome. As it has been well known that CNVs can account for substantial proportions of phenotypic variance in other species including human, CNVs are highly expected to explain genetic variations of diverse economically important traits in cattle. Currently, two main approaches such as hybridization-based microarray and massively parallel sequencing-based method have been successfully applied to detect CNVs throughout the cattle genome. Although there is obvious difference of capabilities to detect genome-wide CNVs at fine scales between different platforms applied, all currently completed investigations exhibited that CNVs are extensively spread throughout the cattle genome as observed in other species. Despite these successes, there are still severe lacks of researches to identify multiple levels of CNVs from diverse cattle or multiple individuals, suggesting that there are a number of CNVs remained undiscovered. Furthermore, there are almost few investigations available to elucidate how each CNV is associated with traits of interest in cattle, so such functional study should be followed along with saturating most of potential CNVs on cattle genome.
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) gene plays important role in fatty acid composition. In order to find marker-assisted selection (MAS) for improving the economic trait, this study was performed to identify the 878T>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on SCD1 gene. Three genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were detected in 878T>C SNP of SCD1 gene from 103 Hanwoo population by polymorphism chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and economic traits were analyzed by general linear model. The frequency of allele C and T was 0.534 and 0.466, also the genotype frequency of CC, CT and TT was 0.252, 0.563, and 0.184, respectively in the Hanwoo population. The TT genotype of SCD1 gene showed a significantly higher measures (p<0.05) of carcass weight (CW) than CT, CC genotype. No significant association was detected between genotype and other economic trait (marbling, backfat thickness, and longissimus muscle area) in this study. The results revealed that SCD1 gene 878T>C SNP could be useful for effective MAS to increase the economic quality in Hanwoo population.
Composites of ceramic powders and an elastomer-based matrix were prepared by mixing CaCO3 powders with polyethylene and polypropylene elastomers, and their mechanical and sound insulation properties were measured. CaCO3 powders with 0.7 μm and 35 μm particle size were added to elastomers up to 80 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy photographs showed uniform distribution of the CaCO3 powders in the matrix. While density and surface hardness increased, melt index, tensile strength and elongation of the composites decreased as the amount of added CaCO3 powders increased. As more CaCO3 powders were added sound transmission loss of the composites increased owing to the increase of density. Addition of 0.7 μm sized CaCO3 powders resulted in a slightly higher transmission loss than the addition of 35 μm sized powders because of the increased interface area between the elastomer matrix and the CaCO3 powders. Composites with a polyethylene matrix showed higher transmission loss than those with a polypropylene matrix because the tensile strength and hardness of the polyethylene-based composites were low and their elongation was high.
Photo-crosslinkable polyimide(PI) which contains CF3 moiety was synthesized. Polarized UV light transformed ketone group of PI to hydroxyl group, which was confirmed by IR and UV-visible spectroscopy. We investigated the dichroic UV-absorption before and after photo-reaction with linearly polarized light. In particular we have attempted to clarify the relationship between the anisotropy of surface region and surface azimuthal anchoring energy and knew that the anchoring energy of photo-alignment PI is comparable with that of mechanical rubbing.
Today, as interest in the importance of urban parks increases, many citied internationally are actively creating small parks, but their maintenance systems remain ineffective. Accordingly, in this study, the limitations and problems in the operation and management of urban parks were derived by examining previous studies on overall urban park maintenance and management. Based on this, the study tried to understand the actual state of maintenance and management of small parks through data surveys and field surveys related to budget execution on case sites. Then, we sought to clarify the actual state of maintenance and management of small parks through data surveys and field surveys regarding the budget execution of case sites as a basis for research to prepare an efficient and systematic improvement plan for the maintenance management system of city parks.
생체고분자물질은 수자원환경에서 점토, 미생물, 바이오매스 등 부유입자들을 응집시키고, 침전, 퇴적시키는 역할을 한다. 본 연구는 다양한 수질화학 조건이 생체고분자물질에 의한 부유입자 응집에 미치는 영향을 파악하고자, 수질화학 조건을 제어하여 응집실험을 수행하였다. 각 응집실험은 이온강도, 2가 양이온 농도, 휴믹물질 분율이 제어된 실험조건에서 Kaolinite 현탄액에 생체고분자물질인 Xanthan Gum을 주입하여 수행하였다. 수체가 가지는 응집능은 응집체 크기 및 잔류 고형물 농도를 측정을 통하여 평가하였다. 본 연구에서, 이온강도 증가는 점토입자 및 생체고분자물질 간 정전기적 반발력을 감소시키고 생체고분자물질이 점토 입자 간 가교를 형성하여 응집을 증대시킨 것으로 파악되었다. 이온강도가 0.001에서 0.1 M NaCl로 증대될 경우, 응집을 증진시켜 응집체 크기는 약 3배 이상 증 대되고 부유고형물농도는 약 2.5배 이상 저감되었다. 또한, 2가 양이온이 수체에 존재하는 경우, 점토입자-생체고분자물질 혹은 생체고분자물질 상호 간 가교를 형성하여, 즉 점토-Ca2+-고분자 또는 고분자-Ca2+-고분자 가교를 형성하여, 생체고분자물질에 의한 부유입자 응집을 증대시켰다. 수체에 Ca2+가 낮은 농도라도 존재 할 경우, 응집을 크게 증진시켜 부유고형물농도가 원주입농도에 비하여 20배 이상 저감되는 것으로 나타났다. 하지만, 휴믹물질이 존재하는 경우, 점토입자 표면에 흡착되어 점토입자의 정전기적 반발력을 증대시켜 생체고분자물질의 흡착을 방해하고 응집을 감소시켰다. 수체에 휴믹물질이 존재할 경우, 응집을 저감시켜 부유고형물농도는 저감되지 않고 원 주입농도와 유사하게 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 수자원환경에서 부유입자 및 퇴적물 거동을 이해하고 수질 및 퇴적물에 대한 최적 관리 방안을 도출하기 위한 기초 자료로 활용될 수 있으리라 기대된다.
This study was conducted to investigate runoff characteristics of non-point pollutants source at the urban and rural zones in sangju area. The monitoring was conducted with seven events for ten months and Event mean Concentration(EMC) and First Flush Effect(FFE) of SS and BOD were calculated on the result of the water quality parameters. During rainfall event, the peak concentrations of SS and BOD were observed after 3∼4 hours of rainfall in rural areas. Whereas, the peak concentrations occurred within 1∼2 hours after rainfall and then the highest concentration of NPS pollutants sharply decreased, showing strong first flush effect in urban areas. The cumulative load curves for NPS pollutants showed above the 45° straight line, indicating that fist flush effect occurred in urban areas. The mean SS EMC values of rural areas ranged from 0.9∼3.3mg/L, it was higher value when compare to urban areas. While the mean BOD values of urban areas were shown the highest values.