Myopalladin (MYPN) is an important expression gene associated with regulation of Z-line structure in muscle and maintains sarcomeric integrity. In this study, we investigated the association between MYPN A1795G SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) and carcass traits (LMA, longissimus muscle area; CW, carcass weight; BF, backfat thickness; MS, marbling score) in Korean cattle. The MYPN A1795G SNP was genotyped in 212 steers and analyzed the associations with carcass traits by PCR-RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism) method. The allele frequencies were 0.566 for G allele and 0.434 for A allele. And the genotype frequencies of GG, GA, and AA genotype were 32.1%, 49%, and 18.9%, respectively. Association analysis indicated that the A1795G SNP of MYPN gene showed a significant association with LMA (p<0.05). The steers with GG genotype had higher LMA than those with the genotypes AA. But no significant associations were observed in other carcass traits (CW, BF, MS). The steers with the GG genotype showed higher CW and BF than those with the genotypes AA and GA. These results suggest that the A1795G SNP of the MYPN gene is associated with LMA and may be useful for candidate marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of LMA in Korean cattle.
The Oct-4 (octamer-4), a member of the POU family transcription factor, is expressed in early mouse embryogenesis and in pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) lines. Oct-4 expression is thought to remain confined to the germline after gastrulation in the embryo. Therefore, the study was designed to, study the location of Oct-4 protein in the ovaries, placenta and testis of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Expression of Oct-4 mRNA in the ovaries and placenta of bovine was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis. Oct-4 was expressed in granulosa, thecal cells irrespective of the shape and size of follicles and endometerium of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Expression of Oct-4 was profound in all the tissues of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) suggestung their role in them. Oct-4 localization and expression could contribute to further developmental studies in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo).
A study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of recipient for Embryo Transfer (ET) in Holstein Heifers. A total of 193 heifers (Age 14-20 months and body weight, 250-400 Kg) was assigned in 2 groups (natural ovulation cycle group and Hormone-induced ovulation synchronization group) based on the development of corpus luteum (CL) and uterus where 28.49% (55/193) heifers were in normal estrous. The ET technique was applied in both of the groups to transfer the embryo in the recipients and evaluated their efficiency. In vivo frozen embryos were used for ET at the blastocyst stage. Results showed that according to recipient preparation method the conception rates were 22.72% (10/44) and 40.26% (60/149) in hormone-induced ovulation synchronization group and natural ovulation cycle group, respectively. The pregnancy rate of heifers was significantly higher (p<0.05) during the first time ET compared to repeat ET; however, recipient showed no significant difference in CL development in both side. The conception rate were 31.03% (9/29), 37.75% (57/151) and 15.38% (2/13) at day 6, 7 and 8, respectively after the CL development of the heifers. The conception rate was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the right side compared to left side of the CL development. In addition, during ET anesthesia group and non anesthesia group conception rate of the recipient were 27.63% (21/76) and 41.88% (49/117), respectively.
We investigated the effect of glutathione supplementation on feed intake, body weight loss, behavior change and economic analysis of elk bull in breeding season. Sixteen elk bulls (5-year-old, average weight; 330 kg) after antler cutting were divided into 2 groups. Eight bulls in each group (control and glutathione group) were fed experimental diet at a level of 0.85 percent of body weight and 6 mg glutathione per kg body weight. As a result, weight-loss of control animal during experimental study (from September to November) was 42.6±19.2 kg while that of glutathione-supplemented group was 20.6 ±19.9 kg. Compared to control group, glutathione-fed group had prevented the body weight loss by 5.2% (p<0.05). Although the feed intake of elk voluntarily decreases during breeding season, daily DM intake per head was 5.59 and 5.80kg in control and glutathione-fed group, respectively. While the statistical difference in feed intake between two groups was not observed, feed intake tended to increase in glutathione-fed group. In economic analysis, additional cost of 99,000 KRW per head was spent due to the cost of glutathione because of its import. Changes in behavior such as crying, deer whistles, whistling intensity and frequency of accident were lower in glutathione-fed group compared to control. During breeding season, use of glutathione as feed supplement could suppress body weight loss and accidents in deer farm.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects on in situ ruminal degradation of feed protein sources (soybean meal, P-SBM; dried distillers grain with solubles, P- DDGS; wheat bran, P-WB) treated with protease as compared with conventional feed protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; dried distillers grain with solubles, DDGS; wheat bran, WB). There was no significant change in the chemical composition and amino acid profiles of enzyme treatment protein sources compared with the non-treated groups (p<0.05). But for treatment groups, the solid content and total amino acids were reduced by increasing the moisture content due to proteolytic conditions. On the entire incubation time in situ ruminal degradation rate of dry matter appeared higher in treatment groups compared to control groups (p<0.05), and that of the treatment groups suspended during 48 hours were in the order of P-SBM (97.70%), P-WB (74.26%) and P- DDGS (72.39%). In particular, DM degradation rate of enzyme treated DDGS significantly increased to 43.62%, 45.99%, 55.97%, 69.87% and 72.39%, respectively, incubated during 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours in rumen (p<0.05). Also protein degradation rate of P-WB and P-SBM significantly decreased compared to their respective non-treated sources; however, by contrast, in DDGS it was increased. For P-SBM, protein degradation rate significantly decreased at 6 and 12 hours, and for P-DDGS it was increased at 3 and 6 hours of suspension times in rumen (p<0.05). In particular, protein degradation rate of enzyme treated group suspended for 48 hours were in the order of P-SBM (91.81%), P-WB (86.36%) and P-DDGS (58.87%). This result suggests that protease treatment of feed protein sources might be utilized to increase the bypass ratio into post-rumen for wheat bran, soybean meal, and to improve the utilization of feed protein.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of muscle part and aging period on free amino acids and aroma compounds of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) cow beef. The M. longissimus (ML) and M. semitendinosus (MS) from 101 mon-old-cows were aged at 2℃ for 14 d. The free amino acids concentration increased in both ML and MS on 14 d of aging. In ML, asparagine, glutamine, histidine, glycine, threonine, arginine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in MS. Varieties of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulfur compounds were detected in both ML and MS and majority of these compounds showed increasing trend on aging. The ML had higher 14 aldehydes (acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2- methylbutanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, E-2-heptanal, octanal, 2-octenal, 2-nonenal, E-2-decenal, E,E-2,4-decadienal and 2-undecenal), 5 ketones (2-propanone, 2,3-butanedione, 2-butanone, 2-heptanone and 2,3-octanedione), 4 alcohols (ethanol, 1-pentanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol), 3 hydrocarbons (3-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-hexadiene, 3- methyldecane and 2,2-dimethyloctane) significantly (p<0.05) compared with MS. However, the MS had higher 5 nitrogen and sulfur compounds (methanethiol, dimethyldisulfide, fufural, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2-octylfuran) significantly (p<0.05) compared with ML.
Gene manipulation of Siberian wildrye grass through transgenic technology can modify grass feature for further improvement in the forage production. In order to optimize transformation conditions of Siberian wildrye grass, the effects of transformation efficiency was investigated with GUS gene. Seed-derived calli were infected and co-cultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 encoding the GUS gene in the T-DNA region. The effects of several factors on transformation and the expression of the GUS gene were investigated. The highest transformation efficiency was obtained when embryogenic calli were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA101 in the presence of 200 μM acetosyringone and coculture for 5 days. The present study was framed and materialized to standardize an efficient, high frequency and reproducible genetic transformation protocol for aromatic Siberian wildrye grass using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
Economic traits are quantitative traits and are mostly controlled by a large number of genes. Some these genes tend to have a large effect on quantitative traits in cattle and are known as major genes primarily located at quantitative traits loci (QTL). However, in practice, QTL is linked to allele associates of the gene controlling traits of interest. It is hypothesized that if QTL explaining a part of genetic differences between animals are detected, the effect of the genes located at QTL could assist in estimating an animal’s true genetic value. Therefore, QTL information could probably provides accuracy of breeding value estimation as well as more genetic gain through selection of animals at relatively younger age. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is the indirect selection process where a quantitative trait of economic importance is selected not just based on the trait itself but also on the basis of marker linked to QTL. MAS could be useful for traits that are difficult to measure, exhibit low heritability, and are expressed late in development. Major genes which are responsible for QTL could possibly be identified first by using different techniques such as gene expression analysis and QTL mapping. Thereafter, the information generated could be implemented for MAS in estimating breeding value. In this review we focused on delivering genome information into Hanwoo breeding program.
Several vertebrate species are able to epimorphically regenerate tissue of appendages or whole appendages such as fingertips, limbs, fins, tails, antlers, and ear tissue via the formation of a blastema of proliferating cells. For structure such as mammalian ear tissue and fingertips and antlers, the origin of the cells for regeneration is uncertain, but in others, such as fish fin regeneration and amphibian limb and tail regeneration, studies revealed that the blastema is formed by the dedifferentiation of mature cells local to the region of injury. Moreover, regeneration requires specification of the identity of new tissues to be made either in lower or higher vertebrates. Whether this process relies only on intrinsic regulative properties of regenerating tissues or whether wound signaling provides input into tissue repatterning is not known. In this review, authors have made efforts to put emphasis on signaling events, importance of polarity during regeneration and put forth how the limitations of regeneration could be overcome in higher vertebrates such as animals and humans.