This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein level and supplementation of protease on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut microflora, intestinal morphology and fecal noxious gas emission in weanling pigs. A total of 240 weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc, 5.82±0.3 kg) were used during 4 weeks in 2 phases (days 0-14, phase 1; and days 15-28, phase 2) feeding program based on age and initial body weight. Pigs were allocated to 2×2 factorial arrangement, including 2 protein levels (HP, high protein; LP, low protein) and 2 protease levels (with or without protease). The average daily gain in the LP treatment (357 g/d) was increased rather than the HP treatment (339 g/d). A greater avarage daily gain was observed in dietary suppiemented protease treatment (358 vs 339 g/d). Average feed intake was greater in the LP treatment (544 g/d) rather than the HP treatment (530 g/d). A greater average daily feed intake was observed in dietary supplemented protease treatment (552 vs 523 g/d). Dry matter and crude protein digestibility were increased in dietary supplemented protease treatment (82.62% and 76.08%, respectively) rather than non-supplemented treatment (81.74% and 75.13%, respectively). Ileal Lactobacillus spp. count increased in dietary supplemented protease treatment (7.42 vs 7.32 log10CFU/g). Emission of H2S was decreased in the LP treatment (4.41 ppm) rather than HP treatment (4.78 ppm). Emission of NH3 was decreased in dietary supplemented protease treatment (10.43 ppm vs 11.76 ppm). In conclusion, the decrease of dietary protein level and supplementation of protease had beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut microflora, and noxious gas emission in weanling pigs.
This study investigated various levels of sodium nitrite and probiotics (SNPro) combination as an alternative to zinc oxide on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora, and morphology of weaned pigs. One hundred and ninety-two weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) with an average body weight of 6.51±0.15 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments(n=6) on the basis of their initial body weight. Experimental period was divided into phase 1 and 2 (each 14 days). The dietary treatments were: 1) Basal diet (control), 2) SNPro1 (control+0.01% SNPro), 3) SNPro2 (control+0.02% SNPro), 4) SNPro3 (control+0.03% SNPro). The average daily gain when SNPro was added to the diet was 288, 309, 319, 324 g in phase 1, 355, 387, 410, 407 g in phase 2 and 321, 348, 364, 366 g in the overall. The concentration of interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 in serum when SNPro was added to the diet were 15, 13.5, 13, 12.8 ng/ml and 165, 162, 155, 145 ng/ml (p<0.05) but toll-like receptor 4 and immunoglobulin G levels in serum were no significantly different. The colonization of Escherichia coli in the ileum and Salmonella spp. in the caecum were significantly decreased as SNPro level increased (p<0.05). However, the population of Lactobacillus spp. did not differ among the groups. Although villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were not significantly affected by the treatments, crypt depth in the jejunum was 599, 586, 615, 599 ㎛ as SNPro level increased (p<0.05). In conclusion, SNPro had beneficial effects on growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and morphology weaned pigs. Therefore, SNPro not only can be considered as an alternative for the pharmacological level of zinc oxide in weaning pigs but also ideal dietary SNPro level was 0.02%.
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of administering dietary tomato powder (TP; 1, 5, and 10%) to mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity for 12 weeks. The TP used in this study was prepared using unmarketable tomatoes. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=60) were randomly divided into five groups, namely, CON, mice fed a basal diet (10% fat); HFD, mice fed HFD (60% fat); HFD+TP1, mice fed HFD (60% fat) supplemented with 1% TP; HFD+TP5, mice fed HFD (60% fat) supplemented with 5% TP; HFD+TP10, mice fed HFD (60% fat) supplemented with 10% TP. The HFD+TP10 group showed lower final body weight (34.23 g) than the HFD group (39.41 g), along with decreased epididymal fat weight (p<0.05). In addition, the HFD+TP10 group showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride contents (136.32 and 33.20 mg/dL, respectively) that the HFD group (175.68 and 59.52 mg/dL, respectively). Increased serum leptin and insulin levels (66.36 and 1.80 ng/mL, respectively) in mice with HFD-induced obesity could be rescued in mice fed HFD supplemented with 10% TP (35.94 and 1.23 ng/mL, respectively). Additionally, the epididymal fat content and hepatic steatosis area showed a dose-dependent decrease with increase in dietary TP supplementation. The anti-obesity effect of 10% TP was linked to reduced serum trimethylamine-N-oxide levels. These results suggested that 10% TP was effective at inhibiting the accumulation of fat in the serum and tissue, and ameliorating lipid metabolism disorders observed in HFD-fed mice. In addition, such utilization of unmarketable tomato to inhibit obesity-associated pathologies is expected to add value and increase profits in the functional food industry.
This study analyzed the effect of time of trot on hematology and blood chemistry values of the Jeju Pony crossbreed horses that are commonly used for riding (14.1±1.4 years old, Gelding). A total of 28 parameters including vital signs as well as stress hormones such as cortisol and lactic acid levels were examined as the time of the trot exercise progressed. Vital signs such as heart rate (38.0→81.0 times/min) and respiratory rate (11.7→35.7 times/min) increased significantly within 30 minutes of exercise. However, difference in the body temperature was not observed before and after exercise. The hematology including white blood cell count (8.03→9.52×103 cells/μL), red blood cell count (5.94×103→7.23–7.32×103 cells/μL), hemoglobin levels (11.82→14.65–14.78 g/dL), and hematocrit levels (25.04→30.27%) significantly increased 30 minutes after the start of the exercise (p<0.05). The blood chemistry value of albumin (3.25→3.47 g/dL) (p<0.05) only showed a significant increase after the exercise. However, the other blood chemistry levels such as, Na+, K+, Ca2+, total CO2, creatine kinase, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, gamma–glutamyl transpeptidase, and total plasma protein did not change. Also, cortisol and lactic acid levels did not show significant difference. The middle-aged Jeju pony crossbreed horses were not stressed by the 30-minute exercise; therefore, it can be concluded that there is no problem regarding the safety of both the rider and the animal.