돼지의 체세포 핵이식(Somatic cell nuclear transfer,SCNT)은 인간에게 약리적 효과가 있는 단백질, 이종 간 장기이식(xenotransplantation)에 사용되는 장기, 질병 연 구 목적의 모델 동물을 제공한다. 특히 형질전환 돼지를 활용한 심장 이식이 세계 최초로 성공한 후 형질전환 돼 지 생산의 안정화는 다음 연구를 위한 중요한 점으로 대 두되고 있으나, 미니돼지의 체세포 핵이식 배아의 생산 효율은 아직 낮은 실정이다. 형질전환의 성공은 양질의 SCNT 배아 생산에서 시작되어야 한다. 이러한 SCNT 배 아의 생산 효율을 향상할 수 있는 요인 중에는 공여 세포 의 형태가 있으며, 성공적인 공여 세포의 생산을 위해서 는 종축에 따른 세포의 특성을 파악하여야 하고, 혈액형 의 차이에서 발생하는 문제점 해결을 위해 OO 타입의 선 별이 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 지속적인 계대 배양을 통 하여 공여 세포로 사용되는 미니돼지의 태아섬유아세포의 계대 배양 조건을 확립하고자 한다. 또한 미니돼지의 혈 액형을 PCR 기반으로 분석하여 분류하고 OO 타입의 선 별을 통하여 이종 간 이식에 용이하게 공여 세포의 조건 을 확립하였다. 이후 sgRNA(single guide RNA)를 사용하 여 CRISPR-Cpf1로 GGTA1(α-1,3 galactosyl-transferase) 유전자를 knock-out 한 미니돼지의 생산으로, 급성면역반 응을 유발하는 Gal(1,3)Gal epitope이 제거된 미니돼지의 세포 주를 구축 및 체세포 핵이식을 통해 GGTA1 knock-out 미니돼지를 생산하였으며, 이러한 연구는 이후 체세포 핵이식 및 이종 간 장기이식에 중요한 기초자료로 사용될 것이라고 생각된다.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs has been used as a very important tool to produce transgenic for the pharmaceutical protein, xenotransplantation, and disease model and basic research of cloned animals. However, the production efficiency of SCNT embryos is very low in pigs and miniature pigs. The type of donor cell is an important factor influencing the production efficiency of these cloned pigs. Here, we investigated the developmental efficiency of SCNT embryos to blastocysts and full term development using fetal fibroblasts (FF) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to identify a suitable cell type as donor cell. We isolated each MSCs and FF from the femoral region and fetus. Cultured donor cell was injected into matured embryos for cloning. After that, we transferred cloned embryos into surrogate mothers. In term of in vitro development, the SCNT embryos that used MSCs had significantly higher in cleavage rates than those of FF (81.5% vs. 72%) (p<0.05), but the blastocyst formation rates and apoptotic cell ratio was similar (15.1%, 6.18% vs. 20.8%, 9.32%). After embryo transferred to surrogates, nine and nineteen clone piglets were obtained from the MSCs and FF group, respectively, without significant differences in pregnancy and birth rate (50%, 40% vs. 52.3%, 45.4%) (p>0.05). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the corpus hemorrhagicum numbers of ovary, according to pregnancy, abortion, and delivery of surrogate mothers between MSCs and FF groups. Therefore, the MSCs and FF are useful donor cells for production of clone piglets through SCNT, and can be used as important basic data for improving the efficiency of production of transgenic clone pigs in the future.
본 실험은 Piezo-미세조작기(PrimeTech Ltd., Japan)를 사용하여 마우스 핵이식 후 재구축배를 CZB와 KSOM 두가지 배양액을 사용하여 체외배양성적을 비교 검토하였다. MII의 미수정란은 성숙한 4~5주령 B6D2Fl에 hCG 주사 후 14시간째에 과적 방법을 통해 난관의 팽대부로 부터 회수하였고, metaphase II chromosome-spindle complex와 최소량의 세포질을 내경이 10인 피펫으로 흡입하여 탈핵하였다. 핵이식에 사용된 난구세포(8-l0)는 3시간동안 12% PVP 에처리 하여 piezo-미세조작기를 이용하여 세포질에 세포의 핵을 직접 미세주입 하였다. 핵이식 후 생존한 재구축배는 2시간동안 배양한 후 10mM SrC1와 5/의 cytochalasin B가 첨가된 -free CZB에서 6시간 활성화 처리하였다, 활성화 처리 후 위전핵이 관찰된 재구축란을 CZB 와 KSOM 배지에서 배양하면서 발달률을 비교하였고, 상실배 및 배반포배로 발달한 재구축배를 day 3 대리모에 이식하였다. 표 1에서 보는 바와 같이 재구축배의 2-cell로의 발달률에 있어서 KSOM이 CZB에 비하여 유의적으로 높게 나타났으며(P<0.05), 또한 4-cell과 상실배/배반 포배로의 발달률에 있어서도 KSOM이 CZB에 비하여 유의적으로 높은 발달률을 나타내었다(P<0.01). 또한 KSOM 배지에서 배양된 상실배/배반포배를 대리모에 이식한 경우에 11.5 d.p.c에 생존한 태아가 관찰되었다. 이상의 결과로 핵이식 재구축배의 활성화 처리 후의 발생에는 KSOM 배지가 CZB 배지에 비하여 유효함을 확인 할 수 있었다.그와 같은 배양 기술을 이용하여 외래유전자를 도입한 일련의 결과에 관하여 보고 하고자한다., 이것은 세포내 유전자가 transfection되지 않은 세포도 neo selection에서 선발된다는 것을 제시하고 있다. 따라서 체세포를 이용한 형질전환동물 생산을 위해서는 세포내 유전자 도입과 선발 과정에서 나타난 colony에 대하여 보다 엄격한 screen을 하는 것이 필요한 것으로 생각된다.로 우점하였다. 여름철 식물플랑크톤 대발생에 영향은 수온과 직산염이 중요하였으나, 부유물질 크게 기여하지 못하였다.애를 확인하고 지도 관점을 파악하는 것을 포함한다. 그러나 본 논문은 역사발생적 수학 학습-지도 원리의 실제적인 적용에 관하여는 기초적인 연구에 지나지 않기 때문에, 역사발생적 원리를 학교수학에 실제적으로 적용하기 위해서는 각각의 내용에 대한 철저한 역사적 분석을 바탕으로 하는 후속 연구가 필요하다./TEX>구성교육이 조선총독부의 관리하에서 실행되었다는 것을, 당시의 사범학교를 중심으로 한 교육조직을 기술한 문헌에 의해 규명시켰다.
This study was carried out to improve a technique of embryo transfer for twin calves production in Hanwoo cattle. Blastocysts for the donor of embryo transfer were classified into three criteria by accessment of morphology; early blastocyst, blastocyst and expanded blastocyst. Tow embryos were introduced transcervically into utrerine horn either of Hanwoo or Holstein by ipsilaterally or contralaterally to the corpus luteum. Thiry-six out of 57 recipients cows were inseminated by artificially on the next day of estrus, and followed by transfer of embryos into contralaterally. The pregnance rates of recipients following transfer of bovine embryos of day 7, 8 and 9 was 43.5, 18.2 and 8.3%, respectively. These results appeared that these was a significant (P<0.05) difference between on day-7 embryos and day-9 embryos, but not between on day-8 and day-9 embryos. Although there was not significant(P<0.05) difference in the pregnancy rates between the blastocysts(11/25, 44%) and expanded blastocysts(2/19, 10.5%) and between the blastocysts and early blastocysts(2/13, 15.4%), the embryos at blastocyst stage are more suitable than others for obtaining higher rate of pregnancy. There was no significant difference on pregnancy of the embryos transferred prior to presence(6/21, 29%) or absence (9/36, 25%) of artificial insemination. On pregnancy of Holstein, 2(15.4%) out of 13 recipients were pregnant in heifer. Similar Pregnancy rates were obtained between 1∼2 parities and 3∼4 parities by 30% (6/20) and 27.3%(3/11), respectively. Taken together, there was not significant difference in pregnancy rate due to small number of recipients used for this experiment. Both of Hanwoo and Holstein introduced the embryos by contralsterally to the corpus luteum were slightly higher pregnancy rate compare to by ipsilaterally (12/41, 29.3% vs, 3/16, 18.8%). The ratio of production of twin and single calves in Holstein was 20% (9/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. However, in Hanwoo cows both of production of twin and single were similar as 8%. This result suggests that Holstein as recipients was superior to Hanwoo cows for production of twin calves. Out of all 15 pregnant, 12(80%) were produced a total of 22 normal calves in which the others composed of abnormal, as judging as 2(13.3%) for abortion and 1(6.6%) for stillbirth during the pregnant period.
The ultrasound-guided oocytes cllection (ovum pick-up ; OPU) has become a substitution for superovlation in cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of OPU frequency on the in vitro production of embryos in Hanwoo cattle. Six cycling Hanwoo cows were distributed into two groups for either once or twice weekly OPU sessions. Oocytes were collected by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration(SA600) using a 6.5HMz transducer and attached with 18 gauge needle, with vacuum pressure of 40 mmHg. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) collected from each donor were matured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 5% CO2 in air at 38.5 for 22h and in vitro matured oocytes were co-incubated with sperm(separated by Percoll gradient) for 6h. The zygotes were co-cultured on cumulus cell monolayer in 10ul droplets in the same culture medium and conditions used for IVM for 7 days. On Day 7 of culture, development to blastocysts was examined. Although the number of oocytes collected was variable depending on individuals, overall embryo production in the twice per week OPU sessions was better that in the once per week sessions(6~21 vs 2~7 blastocysts produced, respectively). Two cows(E, A) were good oocyte donors and embryo production was superior in cow C ; however, cow F was a poor donor as compared to the others. In conclusion, these results suggest that for embryo production, twice weekly OPU sessions were better than once per week for producing embryos in vitro from Hanwoo cattle
The present study was carried out for the comparative study on the collection of bovine follicular oocytes by ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up(OPU) and slaughterhouse-derived (SHD) ovary aspiration and in vitro production of bovine embryos with the follicular oncytes in Korean native cows. Bovine follicular nocytes were observed with a 6.5 MHz convex-array ultrasound transducer designed for intravaginal use and the oocytes were collected with the aspiration equipment attached to the ultrasonograph. Bovine ovaries were collected and transported in phosphate buffered saline from the local slaughterhouse, the follicular oocytes were collected by the aspiration method. The collected follicular oocytes in good quality were matured, fertilized and cultured in the media. The total number of the visible follicles and the recovery rate of follicular oocytes were increased in ultrasonography following follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) treatment in Korean native cows. The mean recovery rate of oocytes was 66.2, 52.8 and 41.7% in the FSH-OPU, non-treatment-OPU and SHD ovaries, respectively. The mean number of recorved oocytes per cow were not significantly(P<0.05) different between the FSH-OPU(14.011.54) and SHD(17.1i6.21) groups, but the numbers in both groups were significantly(P<0.05) higher than the number in the non-treatment-OPU(3.71.57) group. The mean number of usable nocytes in Grade T /11 per ovary was 6.3, 4.8 and 1.3 in the cows of the SHD, FSH-OPU and non-treatment-OPU groups, respectively. The in vitro developmental rate to the blastocyst was not significantly different between the oocytes obtained via OPU(37.1%) and SHD(29.3%). Therefore, the ultrasound-guided OPU technique can be applied to the production of excellent embryos from the high-quality cows, and for the large scale production of in vitro bovine oocytes and embryos, the SHD ovary aspiration method is valuable.
In order to improve the cryopreservation by vitrification or slow freezing of nuclear transplant rabbit embryos, the effects of factors affecting embryo cryopreservation such as cryoprotectants, equilibration, cooling rate and post-thaw dilution on post-thaw survial and development were determined using intact embryos of morular stage. And the post-thaw development of nuclear transplanted embryos cryopreserved under the optimal conditions examined was compared between vitrification and slow freezing. The cryoprotectant solution used was ethyleneglycol-ficoll-sucrose (EFS) or ethyleneglycol-poly-vinylpyrrolidone-galactose- I (EPG- I ) for vitrification, and EPG- II for slow freezing. To examine the viability of frozen-thawed embryos, the nuclear transplanted embryos were co-cultured in TCM-199 plus 10% FBS with bovine oviduct epithelial cells(BOEC) for 24 hrs and the intact morulae were co-cultured with BOEC for 5 days and 3 days to hatching blastocyst stage in 39 ˚C 5% incubator. The results obtained were as follows: Following vitrification with EFS, the post-thaw development of rabbit morulae to hatching blastocyst was significantly(P<0.05) higher in compacted stage(82.4%) than in early morular stage(60.0%). The post-thaw development of compacted morulae to hatching blastocyst was similarly high in vitrification with EFS(82.4%), EPG- I (85.0%) and in slow freezing with EPG- II (83.3%). Following vitrification with EPG- I, the post-thaw development of intact rabbit morulae to hatching blastocyst was similar as 78.0% and 85.0% in 1-step and 2-step post-thaw dilution, respectively. The post-thaw development of nuclear transplanted rabbit embryos of compacted morulae stage to hatching blastocyst was similarly 43.6% and 40.0% in vitrification with EPG- Iand slow freezing with EPG- II, respectively. These results indicated that the rabbit nuclear transplant and intact embryos of morulae stage could be well cryopreserved with either vitrification or slow freezing procedure.