This study was conducted to compare the value of the working environment measurement with the expected exposure value drawn by using a program, thereby going to investigate whether it is available to the risk assessment of domestic workplace. We used the ECETOC TRA program which is one of the exposure predictive models. Four kinds of substances were measured in two workplace which was exposed to organic solvents and one kind of substance was measured in three workplace which was exposed to dusts and then an exposure assessment of chemical risk factors was conducted. The result value of the working environment measurement, solid substance exceeded standard in one site, and it was found that the other solid and liquid substances were within the standard. The value of the exposure assessment program showd the same result; it was higher than the value of the working environment measurement, suggesting that due to its nature, the exposure assessment program is run only on the worst situation. Therefore, it was found that when the exposure assesment program is used, variables should be substituted only after accurately assessing the workplace and it is a good idea to assess the risk beforehand with the exposure assessment program in the case of the workplace which employs no more than 5 people and where it is hard to assess the working environment.
The recent trend in modern systems development can be characterized by the increasing complexity in terms of both the functionality and HW/SW scale that seems to be accelerated by the growing user requirements and the rapid advancement of technology. Among the issues of complexity, the one related to systems safety has attracted great deal of attention lately in the development of the products ranging from mass-transportation systems to defence weapon systems. As such, the incorporation of safety requirements in systems development is becoming more important. Note, however, that since such safety-critical systems are usually complex to develop, a lot of organizations and thus, engineers should participate in the development. In general, there seems to be a variety of differences in both the breadth and depth of the technical background they own. To address the problems, at first this paper presents an effective design process for safety-critical systems, which is intended to meet both the systems design and safety requirements. The result is then advanced to obtain the models utilizing the systems modeling language (SysML) that is a de facto industry standard. The use of SysML can facilitate the construction of the integrated process and also foster active communication among many participants of diverse technical backgrounds. As a case study, the model-based development of high-speed trains is discussed.
While the reduction of industrial accidents has been stagnant, many researchers have been studying and focusing on safety behaviors including safety perception, attitude and safety culture as a new solution as well as a turning-point of this issue. However, we do not pay attention to those studies and researches in Korean construction. Therefore, this study is to introduce preceding researches and case studies in other countries and suggest a new direction to Korean construction. This study found out the current situation and problems in Korean construction studies after tracing the safety perception, attitude and safety culture in Korea and reviewing the background and trend of overseas studies and researches with regard to safety behaviors. Fundamental researches and systematic studies must be conducted in Korean construction with the reference and research data of this study.
The research is to verify by experiments whether the steel truss structure is able to withstand the load of cement bricks of upper part of a door for the safe use of lightweight steel truss structure instead of concrete lintel which is to be installed at upper part of door frame in building cement bricks for apartment construction. The steel truss is designed in order not to disturb bricks-building and the shape of structure was verified by bending test. According to experiments result, camber was applied to steel structure that enabled construction work to be improved and was proved effective for the prevention of accidents by cement bricks-building load test.
It is not an exaggeration to say that modern chemicals take a leading place in our life, and people live with the chemicals, having a huge impact on their daily life. The chemical industry in South Korea, ranked seventh in the world, is one of the key industries that are forming greater part of Korean economy. The actual state of the chemical industries, however, is that over 14 tons of hazardous chemicals are being discharged annually and threaten people's lives with a lack of knowledge of its potential danger. In this way, not only beneficial to us, some of these substances, All chemicals, but also present a threat fundamentally our living environment to hazards to human health and the environment, accidents such chemicals, unlike accidents general understanding the scale of damage and propagation velocity has a complex very difficult risk profile, that can occur during deployment of an accident type is also very diverse. Is the actual situation of public concern against harmful chemicals management's is amplified by the chemical accident in the wake such accidents, government and corporate and reactive system and management system prior to the chemical accident the need for communication to exchange ideas with each other between residents, providing information is important. Therefore, the government departments and corporations, which manage variety of chemicals, ought to contribute toward a development of national security by rigid control over the Hazardous chemicals.
With the recent changes in the environment of weapon systems acquisition, the systems development is becoming more susceptible to a variety of risks. To cope with this situation, US DoD has been emphasizing the importance of constantly applying the test and evaluation (T&E) process throughout the whole life cycle of the weapon systems. In particular, the safety requirements are called for attention while dealing with system risks. To this end, the present paper is aimed at studying the T&E process which incorporates the systems safety in weapon systems development. Analyzing and modeling the relevant processes has made it possible to achieve the objective. As a case study, the model results were applied to the development of unmanned aerial vehicles.
According to ISO 26262 (the international standard on functional safety for automotive industry), the functional safety should be considered during the whole automotive systems life cycle from the design phase throughout the production phase. In order to satisfy the standard, the automotive and related industry needs to take appropriate actions while carrying out a variety of development activities. This paper presents an approach to coping with the standard. Analyzing the standard indicates that the safety issues of the automotive systems should be handled with a system's view whereas the conventional approach to solving the issues has been practiced with focus on the component's level. The aforementioned system's view implies that the functional safety shall be incorporated in the system design from both the system's life-cycle view and the hierarchical view for the structure. In light of this, the systems engineering framework can be quite appropriate in the functional safety development and thus has been taken in this paper as a problem solving approach. Of various design issues, the analysis and verification of the safety requirements for functional safety is a key study subject of the paper. Note, in particular, that the conventional FMEA (failure mode effects analysis) and FTA (fault tree analysis) methods seem to be partly relying on the insufficient experience and knowledge of the engineers. To improve this, a systematic method is studied here and the result is applied in the design of an ABS braking system as a case study.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of safety culture on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and mediation effect of Organizational trust between independent variable and two dependent variables. Based on the responses from 290 employees, the results reveals ; 1) Organizational safety culture has a positive effect on the job satisfactions and organizational safety culture effect positively on the organizational commitment 2) Organizational trust mediates the relationships between safety culture and job satisfaction. 3) Organizational trust mediates the relationships between safety culture and organizational commitment.
The purpose of this study was to compare the exposure levels to emotional labor, occupational and socio-psychological stress, and fatigue for workers engaged in the fields of beauty business (make-up, skin, nail, and hair). For this purpose, a survey was carried out and a statistical analysis was performed for 813 persons As a result, emotional labor was found to be linked with 3 factors of emotional control, emotional dissonance, and positive emotional expression. The exposure level of emotional control was found to be high in the area of hair care and that of positive emotional expression was high in the area of nail care. Based on evaluation of Occupational Stress Scale(KOSS), the stress were found to be highest among workers engaged in the field of make-up and lowest among those in the field of nail. The exposure level of psychosocial stress was found to be the highest in the area of make-up and the lowest in the area of nail care. The exposure level of fatigue was found to be the highest in the area of make-up and the lowest in the area of nail care, showing a difference in the exposure level of stress by area of beauty business. The study confirmed that there is a difference in the exposure level related to emotional labor, job stress, psychosocial stress, and fatigue by area of beauty business.
In recently, a growing concern for the health of urban residents increased interests in a variety of outdoor activities simply be done in terms of cost and time. They are specially interested in low-impact and safe exercises around residential or working area. Walking is the one of easily doing exercise in daytime or nighttime near residential area. The sidewalks of boulevard near the residential area is the best place for exercise because of easy access and the green space with roadside trees. However, if the nighttime is not guaranteed the proper lighting condition, the possibility of exposure to crime and the threat to pedestrian safety can be increased. Because roadside trees are one of the potential obstacle for lighting condition, supplementary lightings are important to mitigate interruption for safety. To meet such a need, the purpose of this study is to propose a simulation approach which improves lighting condition on sidewalks of boulevard with variety of roadside trees. To do so, the simulation approach is applied for analyzing the interrupted condition by classified five standard types of roadside trees considering the growth of them and finding optimal layout of supplementary luminaires by lighting types. The results of this approach shows that it is useful for assessing the safety of pedestrian in nighttime.
To meet the growing needs from a variety of stakeholders, the development of modern systems is getting more complex and thus, the systems failure in the actual operations can potentially become more serious. This is why several international or military standards on systems safety have been published. In spite of the importance of meeting those standards such as IEC 61508 and ISO 26262 in the systems development, the associated practical methods seem deficient since those standards do not provide them. The objective of this paper is to present a method to identify potential hazards in fulfilling the requirements of the safety standards. In particular, the approach taken here is based on applying the functional analysis that covers several levels of the system under development. Note, however, that in the most of the conventional methods for hazards identification, the analysis has been focused on the failure at or underneath the component level of the system. The hazards identification method in this paper would cover the level up to the system by utilizing the functions-oriented approach. The case study of the safety enhancement for locomotive cabs is also discussed.
According to 2012 OECD environmental report, Korea was ranked as the first country of water stress. Water footprint is a method to calculate water usage during the life cycle of a product from material procurement through production to disposal to recycle and to quantify the load to water resources. In water footprint calculation, water consumption unit is used. Agricultural water use is over 48% so it is urgent to mange that area Korea needs to spread the discussion about water footprint as quickly as possible, for the study to prevent social and environmental problems due to water shortage. This paper, through water footprint calculation and comparison in Chungju and Geochang areas, looks to counter measures for water risk, targeting domestically-produced apple.
This study shows an air-purification test by the UV lamp on which TiO2 catalyst is deposited with glass fiber in the reactor chamber. This test was based on the fundamental data of air-purifier as assessing a removing ability on various contaminants such as CH3COOH, NH3, NO and SO2 as variation of the TiO2 coating, the wave of UV lamp, and the additive CaO. As a result, the highest decomposing removal ratio was shown when 5-times coated glass fiber was used. It can be due to the recombination reaction of electrons and electron-hole in the loaded CaO. Thus, the decomposing removal ratio increased as the recombination ratio decreased. In addition, it was confirmed that the decomposing removal ratio lowered when CaO was considerably deposited because it hided the lamp of OH-1 radical.
As a work analysis technique, Work Domain Analysis (WDA) aims to identify the design knowledge structure of a work domain that human operators interact with through human-system interfaces. Abstraction hierarchy (AH) is a multi-level, hierarchical knowledge representation framework for modeling the functional structure of any kinds of systems. Thus, WDA based on AH aims to identify the functional knowledge structure of a work domain. AH has been used in a range of work domains and problems to model their functional knowledge structure and has proven its generality and usefulness. However, many of researchers and system designers have reported that it is never easy to understand the concepts underlying AH and use it effectively for WDA. This would be because WDA is a form of work analysis that is different from other types of work analysis techniques such as task analysis and AH has several unique characteristics that are differentiated from other types of function analysis techniques used in systems engineering. With this issue in mind, this paper introduces the concepts of WDA based on AH and offers a comprehensive list of references. Next, this paper proposes a set of principles for effectively applying AH for work domain analysis, which are developed based on the author's experiences, consultation with experts, and literature reviews.
A cell site lease is a legal agreement by which the owner of a building or a piece of land allows a wireless carrier to use part of it for a cell tower for a period of time in return for money. Wireless carriers spend significant money for cell site leases. This paper tries to find factors affecting cell site leases and management solutions to save lease costs. In other words, this research identifies any factor influencing cell site leases among age, gender, and geographical area in the first problem and determines management priorities using an importance-satisfaction model in the second problem. This paper can provide wireless carriers with effective decision making tools and a basis for negotiation of cell site leases, as they do not have enough bases for negotiation.
This paper proposes a strategic model of linkage between productivity metrics and financial accounting metrics to properly evaluate the financial effect of TPM activities and the business performance. This linkage strategy provides a connection tool for clear communication between factory-level and headquarters that the metrics proposed by this paper ultimately improves a quality of support from the management by receiving the factors required for productivity activities in the practical field. This factor includes such as equipment, raw materials and labors. Here, we propose that chain reaction models using break down structure of productivity metrics and financial metrics enhance the knowledge sharing of KPI (Key Performance Indicator) which generally tend to create oversimplified communication between management in headquarters and employees in the practical fields. The productivity metrics include OEE(Overall Equipment Effectiveness) of TPM (Total Productive Maintenance), OLE (Overall Labor Effectiveness) of PAC(Performance and Analysis and Control) activities, and OYE (Overall Yield Effectiveness) of TMM(Total Material Management) activities. The financial accounting metrics include ROE(Return on Equity), ROA(Return on Asset), and AVR(Added-Value Rate). The suggested chain reaction model selects the financial metrics as initial stage and branch down until final stage of productivity metrics. When demand exceeds supply, an ideal speed rate, the lean OEE strategy can be initially applied to reduce the gap between the demand and supply, then apply variable costing to estimate correct amount of operating profit. In addition, the paper presents a new type of model for linkage between financial accounting metrics including CAPEX(Capital Expenditure), OPEX(Operating Expenditure), EVA(Economic Added Value), DCL(Degree of Combined Leverage), and TPM productivity activities including AM(Autonomous Maintenance), PM(Preventive Maintenance), MP(Maintenance Prevention) and QM(Quality Maintenance). In order to support the evidence of proposed linkage strategy, a case analysis on 52 projects from national TPM contest from 2011 to 2012 is analyzed. The case presents the classification of CAPEX and OPEX activities from TPM, and proposes the correct implementation of financial effect for TPM projects.
There are many pros and cons for whether smart glasses and watch would be further going technology or not beyond smart phone. What have to do domestically is to find acting ways to catch up with technological gap in short term basis through analyses and investigations in technological issues, patents profile, market forecast. In this paper, firstly we investigate and review technological issues and form factors of smart glasses and HMD, and secondly analyze technological tendency and identify their core technology and intension from global key player's patents analyses connected with smart glasses, and conclusively suggest technological prospects and it's countermeasures.
It has passed 10 years to enact 'Act on Special Measures for the Promotion of Venture Businesses.' With 10 years' data book, we study to find the correlation between venture investment and start-up. According to correlation analysis, we find that venture investment and start-up are strong and positive-related, and the increment of investment can contribute to the increment of start-up.