The efficient safety estimation for a business should analyze an accident data by considering every possible and potential factor. Thus, we consider several factors to build the safety estimation model to meet fairness and rationality. This paper present the yearly statistic data of accident from KOSHA analyze the data by industry, scale, year of service of a employee, age and other factors; build the safety estimation model for the business based on the accident report derived the analysis. The estimation model is established by the weights for accident type, degree, scale, industry, year of service, and age of the employee derived from ANP(Analytic Network Process).
Continued efforts to build up Safety Management System(SMS) and to improve its efficiency in airports, to which customers have direct access, are taken for granted due to continuous development of the aviation industry in both quantity and quality and rapid growth of air transportation market. This thesis proposed efficient operation methods of SMS for domestic airport organizations including Incheon International Airport(IIA), the largest airport in South Korea, aiming at strengthening aviation safety from the perspective of airport operators who play a pivotal role in service provider SMS. Those are consolidation of the existing safety management organizations and various improvements to promote voluntary incident reporting system. To draw a proposal for the improvements, conducted a research on domestic safety management status, carried out an analysis on operating conditions and did a research on ICAO regulations, domestic legal system as well as statistics data. Relevant studies and researches were also gathered and analyzed. A search for further improvements can also help increase operational efficiency and promoting a higher-level of safety awareness among operators can establish mature safety culture at airports.
High rising of the buildings offers a number of risk factors than ever before with regard to fire prevention. Especially in the construction site of high-rise buildings, people waste golden-time during the evacuation because temporary fire fighting facilities are not installed and transferred to a large fire because of fire suppression failure. In this study, the researcher derives the problems of fire protection in high-rise buildings construction sites and proposed the measures in such the legal aspects as fireᆞ building construction code and etc. There are the legal improvements such as orders of construction suspension in the problems of fire safety, appointing fire safety manager, temporary fire protection installation standards, enhancing penalty provisions regarding the use of fire, operating self fire brigade, confirming on-site after completing fire-protection facalities, establishment or strengthening special fire-protection investigations
Modern systems development becomes more and more complicated due to the need on the ever-increasing capability of the systems. In addition to the complexity issue, safety concern is also increasing since the malfunctions of the systems under development may result in the accidents in both the test and evaluation phase and the operation phase. Light rail transit(LRT) with passenger capacity between bus and subway is driven by an unmanned control, so safety issues of LRT in emergency shall be considered more carefully than other rolling stock. Modern railway system is a complex system and many actions in emergency are required. In this view, interoperability approach is effective to identify the related elements in emergency. In this paper, we propose the method to generate the fire response scenario of unmann ed LRT based on the outputs of systems engineering architecture design methodology. The proposed method is could be contributed to establish more reliable and applicable fire response scenario.
The purpose of this investigation is to enhance the survival rate of patients by transporting them to the hospital within the golden hour through the operational improvement of emergency dispatch instruction. To this end, problems and improvements of current operating system were derived by carrying out a survey against paramedics of Incheon city in 2012 and analyzing the current emergency dispatch instruction. This study analyzed the emergency activity daily reports for one year from January 1 through December 31, 2012 and researched the consciousness of 119 emergency medical technician. According to the analysis of the survey, there were no meaningful differences in the on-site arrival times per triage. Therefore, the item of 'Emergency Classification' specified in the emergency dispatch instruction needs to be integrated in the scheme of "triage". Also, the feedbacks of the emergency action log and the emergency dispatch instruction are necessary for 'duty for operation' to review the adequacy to the severity after the end of emergency operation. Finally, the improvement of the system for the continuous communication between the paramedics and the command staff is necessary. This improvements as stated above are expected to contribute to raise survival rate of patients.
This study classified the study subjects as apartment residents and managers, and conducted the descriptive statistics of research questions related to the effectiveness of the lightweight partition walls and the evacuation space. This study also conducted T-test and Anova to find the different perceptions of the lightweight partition walls and the evacuation space, and the different perceptions of related laws according to the characteristics of the residents and managers. The findings and suggestions were as follows. Firstly, strengthening of the Senior Fire Safety Manager system to prevent the insolvency of fire safety management due to the affiliate. Secondly, implementing enhanced penalties in accordance with not implementing residents education, in order to prevent not smoothly delivering manager trained education to residents. Thirdly, adjusting hands-on training time according to the gender of the managers to supplement women’s relatively low perceptions of lightweight partition. Fourthly, mandating evacuation guidance stickers on the evacuation space for residents to remove obstacles in the evacuation space. Finally, establishing regular residents education system in order to improve the awareness of the related laws for residents residing over 16th floors.
This paper reviewed the relationship between job demands and safety motivation, and the moderating effect of A-type trait in Korean Air Force.
Based on the responses from 722 responses, the results of multiple regression analysis appeared as follow; 1) role overload effects positively and role ambiguity effects negatively on intrinsic safety motivation. 2) role conflict effects negatively on extrinsic safety motivation. 3) role ambiguity effects negatively on intrinsic safety motivation in B-type than in A-type trait.
Successful development of weapon systems requires a stringent verification and validation (V&V) process due to the nature of the weapons in which continual increase of operational capability makes the system requirements more complicated to meet. Thus, test and evaluation (T&E) of weapon systems is becoming more difficult. In such a situation, live fire tests appear to be effective and useful methods in not only carrying out V&V of the weapon systems under development, but also increasing the maturity of the end users operability of the system. However, during the process for live fire tests, a variety of accidents or mishaps can happen due to explosion, pyro, separation, and so on. As such, appropriate means to mitigate mishap possibilities should be provided and applied during the live fire tests. To study a way of how to accomplish it is the objective of this paper. To do so, top-level sources of hazard are first identified. A framework for T&E is also described. Then, to enhance the test range safety, it is discussed how test scenarios can be generated. The proposed method is based on the use of the anticipatory failure determination (AFD) and multiple event tree analysis (ETA) in analyzing range safety. It is intended to identify unexpected hazard components even in the environment with constraints. It is therefore expected to reduce accident possibilities as an alternative to the traditional root-cause analysis.
Universal Design involves designing products and spaces so that they can be used by the widest range of people possible. Universal Design evolved from Accessible Design, a design process that addresses the needs of people with disabilities. This paper introduces the universal design concept through analysis of causes of railway accident within the urban railway station. Railway accident analysis was performed by the internal facilities. We analyzed the standard of accident type, accident cause and accident subject such as elevator, escalator, stairs etc.
The demand from customers on better products and systems seems to be ever increasing. To meet the demand, the systems are becoming more and more complicated in terms of both scale and functionality, thereby requiring enormous effort in the development. One bright spot of this trend is that such effort has been the driving forces of the remarkable advancement in modern systems development. On the other hand, safety issues appear to be critical in many large-scale systems such as transportation and weapon systems including high-speed trains, airplanes, ships, missiles/rockets launchers, and so on. Such systems turn out to be prone to a variety of faults and thus the resultant failure can cause disastrous accidents. For the reason, they can be referred to as safety-critical systems. The systems failure can be attributed to either random or systemic factors (or sometimes both). The objective of this paper is on how to reduce potential systemic failure in safety critical systems. To do so, a proper system design is pursued to minimize the risk of systemic failure. A focus is placed on the fact that complex systems have a lot of complicated interfaces among the system elements. To effectively handle the sources of hazards at the complicated interfaces and resultant failure, a method is developed by utilizing a design structure matrix. As a case study, the developed method is applied in the design of train control systems.
In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the data by measuring the radiation shielding rate and uniformity in order to evaluate the performance of an Apron. In addition, storage conditions were also evaluated. The uniformity measurement was performed by evaluating the Apron DICOM images using a PACS program. The experiment was intended for 51 Aprons being used in three hospitals in the Daejeon area. The radiation shielding rate and uniformity were measured per lead equivalent for 0.25 mmPb, 0.35 mmPb, and 0.5 mmPb. As a result, the higher lead equivalents were, the greater differences in the non-uniformity between the top part and the bottom part became (p=0.020). In all hospitals, regarding the non-uniformity of four places in Aprons, all showed statistically significant differences (p<0.01). The average value of the transmitted radiation dose showed less difference (p = 0.005) in the bottom right than in the upper right but was statistically significant. There have been no marks of manufacturing date or the date of purchase in the Apron.
When scanning PET/CT, dose not unwrinkle gastric folds can be difficult to diagnose gastric cancer. In this study, we use an blowing agent to evaluate the extension the stomach and usefulness of it. The study enrolled 30 patients who patient with uptake in stomach between January and February 2013. Stomach extension was described as the vertical length of the Water drink group was 61.7±9.7 mm, horizontal length was 102.5±17.6 mm and the vertical length of the Blowing agent group was 74.1±10.7 mm, horizontal length was 101.5±14.8 mm in transverse section. Stomach extension was described as the vertical length of the Water drink group was 109.3±18.8 mm, horizontal length was 62.7±18.4 mm and the vertical length of the Blowing agent group was 123.1±23.1 mm, horizontal length was 87.6±14.9 mm in coronal section. Water drink group SUV decreased 35% and Blowing agent group SUV decreased 56%. Blowing agent group extension was similar or superior than water drink group. Therefore, when using a blowing agent will be able to help clinical.
According as radiation therapy technique develops, standardization of radiation therapy has been complicated by the plan QA(Quality Assurance). However, plan QA tools are two type, OADT (opposite accumulation dose tool) and 3DADT (3 dimensional accumulation dose tool). OADT is not applied to evaluation of beam path. Therefore tolerance error of beam path will establish measurement value at OADT. Plan is six beam path, five irradiation field at each beam path. And beam path error is 0 degree, 0.2 degree, 0.4 degree, 0.6 degree, 0.6 degree, 0.8 degree. Plan QA accomplishes at OADT, 3DADT. The more path error increases, the more plan QA error increases. Tolerance error of OADT path is 0.357 using tolerance error of conventional plan QA. Henceforth plan QA using OADT will include beam path error. In addition, It will increase reliability through precise and various plan technique.
Techniques, using physical wedge filter and using dynamic wedge filter and FIF(Field in Field) and ISCT(Irregular Surface Compensating Technique), have been developed according to progress of radiation therapy of breast cancer. Measurement of dose was done to judge the usefulness of technique using three cases, non tissue loss after breast conserving operating and tissue loss after breast conserving operating and mastectomy. Dose indexes of breast tissue, CI (Conformity Index), HI (Homogeneity Index) and QOC (Quality of Coverage), dose index of skin, or dose indexes of lung, volume of 50 percent dose and 20 percent dose were estimated and compared. Using dynamic wedge filter is useful plan at non tissue loss allowing for high dose of lung. FIF and ISCT are useful plan at tissue loss. ISCT is useful plan at mastectomy. Henceforth, we need to apply to valid plan and body type and thorax size.
Last five years, Occupational injury rate is declining but still a standstill as 2%, if the rate of deaths all people from 2% to 1% in 2013, but decreased as, occupational safety and health in terms industrial accidents yet has a very weak structure in very small Manufacturing workplace. The purpose of this study was to survey a 1:1 directly person interviews with a structured questionnaire intended for 150 a very small manufacturing workplace. In the results, working with non-regular(informal) workers is one in 10 persons 11.7% and female workers is about three people on 10 persons with 31.0%, and that 75% of non-regular workers who are mainly engaged in the production line appeared. And the work-related injury and accident experience was 4.0% and the occupational injury rate was 1.24%, especially occupational injury rate of older workers was 3.65%, a female workers 1.72%. Workplace risk assessment carried out in response that it was very low as 9.3% of the total. In the technology and funding programs that are supported by the government, was highest with 62.7% of the clean support program awareness, awareness of the rest of the programs is about 10-14% lower. And the satisfaction of supporting a clean support program were the highest 81.3%.
For design research of teenagers' posture correcting shirt, postures of teenagers were analyzed and became the base of inventing suitable patterns. The subjects of this study were 198 of both female and male middle school students from the city of Seoul. Students' postures in classroom and length change of body surface were observed and analyzed; based on this, total of 5 postures was selected, and length changes of body surface were applied. The patterns in this study were designed with stretch material to help antagonism by muscle movements. Each fabric that was used in this study had 110% of stretch, 120~140% of stretch, and 150~170% of stretch. Both of one-way-fabric and duplex-fabric were used in this study, depending on application site.
It is expected that the temperature in Pyeongyang will be similar to that (16.6℃) in Seogwipo in the late 21st century, and most of South Korea will enter the subtropical climate due to climate change. Change in the precipitation pattern like the range of fluctuation caused by climate change will lead to expanded uncertainty in securing reliable water supply, along with a serious impact on demands for living and industrial water due to change in the volume and period of river outflow. As industrial water for production activities is estimated based on the contract quantity, it is difficult to apply rationalization of water usage and incentives in water recycling. Therefore many companies are making efforts in complying with the effluent standard while spending few resources on such rationalization and recycling.
This study researched water risk management over 115 Korean companies by 28 questions in 4 categories. Through the research, this study aims to understand water risk management levels and seek response plans.
We develop a model to predict typhoons in Korea. We collect data for typhoons and classify those depending on the severity level. Following a Bayesian approach, we develop a model that explains the relationship between different levels of typhoons. Through the analysis of the model, we can predict the rate of typhoons, the probability of approaching Korean peninsular, and the probability of striking Korean peninsular.
We show that the uncertainty for the occurrence of various types of typhoons reduces dramatically by adaptively updating model parameters as we acquire data.
In an automated industry PLC plays a central role to control the automation system. Therefore, fault free operation of PLC controlled automation system is essential in order to maximize a firm’s productivity. A prior test of control system is a practical way to check fault operations, but it is a time consuming job and can not check all possible fault operation. A formal verification of PLC program could be a best way to check all possible fault situation. Tracing the history of the study on formal verification, we found three problems, the first is that a formal representation of PLC control system is incomplete, the second is a state explosion problem and the third is that the verification result is difficult to use for the correction of control program. In this paper, we propose a transformation method to reproduce the control system correctly in formal model and efficient procedure to verify and correct the control program using verification result. To demonstrate the proposed method, we provided a suitable case study of an automation system.
The history of Korea Qualification system began after the Korea War. The Qualification was recognized to it's value with economic growth until the 2000. But the value of qualifications has to be re-evaluated under the current global environments. Almost Previous research has not to work for the value of qualifications all of Korea. So, This study presents a evaluation structure frame to work and some evaluation factors for the qualification value. In addition, the methodology proposed to obtain results using the AHP weights based on the evaluation methodology and questionnaire. The analysis results are used as a basis for selecting the future policy direction of the national qualification.