In general, companies operate systematically in response to financial risks such as exchange rates and liquidity, while they are vulnerable to risks in the manufacturing and sales processes. In particular, logistics refers to the activities for planning, managing and implementing efficient flows from the starting point of goods and products to the point of consumption, The purpose of this study was to develop key risks and key risk management indicators (KRIs) for risks that undermine logistics efficiency so that logistics risks can be effectively prevented and managed. As a result, 40 risk management indicators (KRIs) were developed in a total of six categories in the logistics sector, and the definition, calculation method and early warning grade of each KRI were presented so that companies could prevent risks in advance in logistics activities and contribute to enhancing efficiency of their work.
As of 2018, total yield of lettuce and strawberry amounted to 93,543 tons (representing 1.0 percent) and 183,639 tons (2.0 percent), respectively, among total yields worth 9,185,889 tons in South Korea. Lettuce is affected by a combination of numerous elements such as varieties, cultivation methods and pests during each growth phase (Lee et al., 1999). It is mainly cultivated in spring and fall. Especially due to respiration rate after harvest leading to reduced quality and poor storage, maintaining annual supply is unavailable (Jang et al., 2018). With the distribution of new varieties, forcing culture and indoor insulated facilities for plant cultivation during winter, strawberries are produced every year except for late summer and early fall. Due to active respiration, transpiration, soft flesh and high water content, the fruit is vulnerable to go bad and got rotten compared to other fruits. Furthermore, it is difficult to maintain freshness due to the possibility of softening, discoloration and fungi (Lee et al., 2012). In this regard, developing improved storage and package techniques is needed to ensure maintaining quality and safety even just two to three days after harvest. In order to ensure improved quality and safety of strawberries and lettuce after harvest, the present study applied a modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology (Mostofi et. al., 2008). Going forward, it compared the quality and safety of the two products while being stored in a way that put them in an MAP-applied container and a plastic container at room temperature and 4 degree Celsius.
In Korea, primary school (also junior high school) is compulsory and free since 2004. But it looks high school is also compulsory, as over 80% of adults has a high school diploma currently. For 20 years improving high school education is only education-oriented, rather than occupation-oriented. And, the mismatch between the occupational requirement and the lesson from school is getting larger. To resolve this issue, the Korean government builds and utilizes National Competency Standards(NCS) to realize a competence-oriented society. With NCS, the government enables to run of a work-study program and tries to suggest the fundamental solution to improve occupational ability and the unemployment of young people. However, the prejudice against the education level and occupation is still engrained, and it is hard to match the education-career-qualification based on NCS. Therefore, we study NCS from the definition to the utilization, suggest an improving method to flexibly utilized the standards in the fields, and continuously improve and develop the NCS.
This investigation was carried out in Liaoning, Shandong, and Shaanxi where classified most of their geological organizations into profit organizations, which means they must implement enterprise-oriented reform immediately. The valid 311 questionnaires were collected and used to verify the serial mediating model by AMOS 23.0. Results verified the crucial mediating effects of structural and psychological empowerment between external-focused organizational culture and openness for change. Adhocracy culture positively affects employees’ openness for change through three indirect paths, including one mediator and two mediators. Market culture impacts individuals’ openness for change through two indirect paths, one is through structural empowerment and another one is through two mediators. The findings provide managers in geological organizations with an empowering management practice model which could promote geological industry reform effectively.
The National Competency Standards(NCS) has been developed a good curriculum to reflect the demand in the industry. NCS is defined as systemizing the knowledge, skill, and attitude required to perform a task in the industry. It is an effort to reduce the gap between educational requirements and occupational requirements. However, when NCS is applied, the task level is changed to the title of qualification according to the policy outcomes for the government project. And, the NCS has been emphasizing the purpose of license acquisition, rather than using the standard for tasks in the industry. It means that the misuse of NSC hinders utilizing it as the original purpose of standardizing a task. It requires the customer to study the required competency unit with a no-choice option. Moreover, it makes it hard for companies or industry autonomically run the NCS. Therefore, we define the operational range in terms of the education field, the qualification field, and the career field to diffuse and apply NCS, and suggest the effective utilization method.
Recently, a multi facility, multi product and multi period industrial problem has been widely investigated in Supply Chain Network(SCN). One of keys issues in the current SCN research area involves minimizing both production and distribution costs. This study deals with finding an optimal solution for minimizing the total cost of production and distribution problems in supply chain network. First, we presented an integrated mathematical model that satisfies the minimum cost in the supply chain. To solve the presented mathematical model, we used a genetic algorithm with an excellent searching ability for complicated solution space. To represent the given model effectively, the matrix based real-number coding schema is used. The difference rate of the objective function value for the termination condition is applied. Computational experimental results show that the real size problems we encountered can be solved within a reasonable time.
The purpose of this study is to analyze outcome of the project to improve old water supply facilities in Airforce Base to improve water revenue rate. To achieve the objective of this study, First, literature review is conducted to clearly define the concept of water revenue rate improve project. Second, WASCO project on 2 Airforce base review and smart water management pilot project on 1 Airforce base is conducted. Third, economical analysis of project is conducted to examine the outcome. As a result, WASCO and smart water management pilot project on Airforce base was effective to improve water revenue rate. Finally, the improvements were suggested after investigating the key factors on water revenue rate improve project. In the future, this study will be used as a baseline for developing water revenue rate improve project.
Many of companies have made significant improvements for globalization and competitive business environment The supply chain management has received many attentions in the area of that business environment. The purpose of this study is to generate realistic production and distribution planning in the supply chain network. The planning model determines the best schedule using operation sequences and routing to deliver. To solve the problem a hybrid approach involving a genetic algorithm (GA) and computer simulation is proposed. This proposed approach is for: (1) selecting the best machine for each operation, (2) deciding the sequence of operation to product and route to deliver, and (3) minimizing the completion time for each order. This study developed mathematical model for production, distribution, production-distribution and proposed GA-Simulation solution procedure. The results of computational experiments for a simple example of the supply chain network are given and discussed to validate the proposed approach. It has been shown that the hybrid approach is powerful for complex production and distribution planning in the manufacturing supply chain network. The proposed approach can be used to generate realistic production and distribution planning considering stochastic natures in the actual supply chain and support decision making for companies.
With the advent of the 4.0 era of logistics due to the Fourth Industrial Revolution, infrastructures have been built to receive the same services online and offline. Logistics services affected by logistics 4.0 and IT technology are rapidly changing. Logistics services are developing using technologies such as big data, artificial intelligence, blockchain, Internet of things, and augmented reality. The convergence of logistics services and various IT new technologies is accelerating, and the development of data management solution technology has led to the emergence of electronic cargo waybill to replace paper cargo waybill. The electronic waybill was developed to supplement paper waybill that lack economical and safety. However, the electronic waybill that appeared to complement the paper waybill are also in need of complementation in terms of efficiency and reliability. New research is needed to ensure that electronic cargo waybill gain the trust of users and are actively utilized. To solve this problem, electronic cargo waybill that combine blockchain technology are being developed. This study aims to improve the reliability, operational efficiency and safety of blockchain electronic cargo waybill. The purpose of this study is to analyze the blockchain-based electronic cargo waybill system and to derive evaluation indicators for system supplementation.
Economic Development Zone(EDZ) in the province is one of the foreign policy for economic development of North Korea. North Korea has promulgated 27 Economic Development Zones(5 EDZs as central level and 22 EDZs as provincial level) to promote economic growth through the expansion of external opening policy. EDZs of the provinces play an important role in North Korea’s national and regional economic growth. The purpose of this study is to select analytical criteria that can be quantified when considering the location conditions of North Korean economic development zones when domestic companies advance into North Korea according to the progress of inter-Korean economic cooperation, and derive the relative importance between the criteria. After that, based on this, we intend to quantify the evaluation of the location priority of the economic development zone. In this study, through AHP analysis results, when domestic companies enter North Korea, we derive the importance and preference of location selection factors when considering the location conditions of North Korean economic development zones. Taking into account the reality of North Korea when the Korean company entered the North economic development zone following location for evaluation. That is, logistics and transportation, industrial infrastructure, competitiveness, and management incentives. And 14 sub-factors were selected and AHP analysis was performed.