The overall goal of a safety based railroad system is either to eliminate hazards in designing or to minimize the possibility of it. In order to indicate system safety or low risk although it may not be possible to achieve zero risk conditions, first, it shall ensure that any disasters would occur due to system operation because the prescribed specifications are properly fulfilled and there are no failures of any kind. Second, the risk of faults or failures leading to a mishap must be eliminated or minimized by using fault-tolerance or fail-safe procedures. This paper will attempt to summarize the personal and social risk criterion at widely scattered points, presently used as a safety approach in all over EU, in order to establish the step by step procedures of the detailed standard for railway facilities. In addition, we present the new safety analysis method using the SIL-based evaluation standard and the Reachability Graph of the Petri Net.
The occupational safety and health expenses in construction since 1988 has contributed significantly to the reduction of injury occurrence rate. But the appropriation standards for the Occupational Safety and Health Expenses in Construction(OSHEC) have been pointed out so many issues. The purpose of this study is to present ways to improve the appropriation standards for OSHEC through the reviewing of several issues about the current system and analysis of existing statistical data. Based on the result of the research, it is proposed the new model for OSHEC.
The efforts to reduce industrial accident has been brisk recently in workplace. These efforts were mainly concentrated on construction and manufacturing. Despite these efforts, current accident rate so far has been maintained on the fixed level. According to the change of industrial structure, the government's attention on industrial accident prevention activities are focused in service industries. When trying to appraise the result of such activities, it is impossible to evaluate safety without certain criteria. Therefore, we analyze data by TOPSIS method that all the subway institution jointly manage every year. we decide the order of safety priority between domestic subway workplaces and measure the variation in safety by sensitivity. As a result, we draw conclusions to improve safety for the primary consideration and suggest alternatives.
Safety and health related information for the proper use and handling of pesticides is usually printed on the surface of the pesticide products (bottle type or bag type) in the form of texts. But, the guidelines or standards for the appropriate presentation of the texts for the pesticide products are most vague or not practical. Thus, this study aimed to provide the preliminary guidelines for the text sizes based on the legibility experiments. Total twenty subjects from two age groups (young: n=10, old: n=10, five males and five females in each group) participated in the experiment. First, subjects read the text cards presented in the distance of 50cm from the eyes of the subjects. Eight different text card sets were prepared for different font type(thick gothic-type and fine gothic-type), thickness of font(plain and bold), and number of syllables (2 and 3 syllables). When subjects read the cards, the correctness of reading (correct or wrong) was recorded and the degree of discomfort (from 1: no discomfort at all to 4: can't read at all) was also evaluated for all the text sizes. Results showed that the character size should be 4 pt or larger for the young subjects to read at least one word correctly in all the text conditions. For the old subjects to read at least one word correctly, the character size should be five pt or larder. The average of the minimum character sizes for 100% correct answer is 6.1 pt for young subjects and 10.5 pt for old subjects, respectively.
본 연구에서는 실린더 형 쉘 구조물의 구조적 안정성에 대하여 해석 하였다. 임계하중은 하중을 점차적으로 증가 하여 구조물이 파괴가 발생 할 때의 상태에서 가장 작은 하중을 의미한다. 셀 구조의 안정성을 임계하중의 크기로 기초를 두고 해석 하였다. 실린더 형 쉘의 차분해석은 일차적 원통형 판구조와 같으므로 최근에 많은 연구의 대상이 되어왔다. 차분법은 복잡한 구조물에서도 물론, 다양한 경계조건을 포함하는 문제에 이르기까지 효과적인 수치방법이다. 본 연구에
The research proposes seven elimination rules of redundant gates and blocks in Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Reliability Block Diagram (RBD). The computational complexity of cut sets and path sets is NP-hard. In order to reduce the complexity of Minimal Cut Set (MCS) and Minimal Path Set (MPS), the paper classifies generation algorithms. Moreover, the study develops six implementation steps which reflect structural importance (SI) and reliability importance (RI) from Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) that a priority of using the functional logic among components is to reduce (improve) the system unavailability (or availability). The proposed steps include efficient generation of state structure function by Rare Event Enumeration (REA). Effective use of importance measures, such as SI and ill measures, is presented based on the number and the size of MCS and MPS which is generated from the reference of this paper. In addition, numerical examples are presented for practitioners to obtain the comprehensive understanding of six steps that is proposed in this research.
Unit cost for asbestos removal work which have been made out at government contract award for recent three years has been reviewed and shown with table. And the cost have been compared with ones made out by two agencies, American asbestos removal specialists, government ministry for making out comparison tables. First, legal and practical work status survey have been made to determine reasonability of introducing separate contract-awarding system, as a part of ensuring reasonable unit work cost. And then, two different status have been compared and there in introduction possibility of separate contract-awarding system, it is found out. In interior removal work case, it is thought that 50% by owner, 60% unit work cost by the expert of which removal specialist think as reasonable unit cost. the results for exterior and spray work method are shown with almost same context. Impact factors for determining unit work cost such as project mount, project kind, contract-awarding method, subcontract method have been compared with parties. Removal specialist and expert group have almost same ideas for project amount which has been hightestly weighed but owner's recognition has partially lower than specialists idea. There are almost no difference of recognition between three(3) parties for project kind. Idea comparison of reasonable unit work cost for asbestos removal work between three concerned parties has been analyzed and found out that expert group do unit work cost, 65% of which removal specialists estimate, in interior tex removal. And there is almost no difference between them in exterior roof slate removal. But there is considerable difference between them that owner estimates 50% unit cost of specialist one while expert group estimate 50% of specialist idea of unit removal cost.
As environmental protection is becoming more and more important, green production has become a key issue for almost every manufacturer and will determine a manufacturer can be sustainable in the long term. Therefore a performance evaluation system for green suppliers is necessary to determine the suitability of suppliers to cooperate with the company. While the works on the evaluation and/or selection of suppliers are abundant, those that concern environmental issues are rather limited. The objective of this study is to construct a combined model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and balanced scorecard (ESC) for evaluating green suppliers in the manufacturing industry. The ESC concept is applied to define the hierarchy with four major perspectives (i.e. financial, customer, internal business process, and learning and growth), and performance indicators are selected for each perspective. FAHP is then proposed in order to tolerate vagueness and ambiguity of information. Finally, FAHP is finally constructed to facilitate the solving process. With the proposed model, manufacturers can have a better understanding of the capabilities that a green supplier must possess and can evaluate and select the most suitable green supplier for cooperation.
Incheon port is located near the Seoul metropolitan area and it is gateway port to Korea. It has the efficient location conditions in geography and economics. Many logistics industry had been developed taking the advantage of above conditions. Since Incheon International Airport opened in 2001, the function in logistics had been grown gradually. But most of logistics companies in Incheon are lack of basic usage of logistic information. To identify the status for logistic industry in Incheon we analysed various statistical data and literature in this study. From the survey results, we found that logistic industry has higher weight than other industries. It is sure that logistics industry is the specific industry in Incheon.
The logistics industry in Incheon is lack of basic usage for logistic information. As development of logistics industry the companies recognized the importance of logistics informatization. But due to a small scale of logistic companies it is difficult to equip the basic infrastructure for logistics informatization. To investigate the status of informatization of logistics companies in Incheon, we divide questionnaire by the aspects of information operations, aspects of information needs, information effects and policy aspects of planning and support information. By the result of survey we suggest the supporting plan for Incheon logistics industry.
This research is a literature survey on the Supply chain security. International organization and governments have build security regulations to improve the security in the shipment through supply chain. The researches on supply chain security were increasing during last 10 years. We were surveyed 53 research including Korean and international papers. ills study was classified by research subjects, security regulation, and research methods. Korean researches were focused to introducing and reviewing on the security regulation, but the researches on specific security reinforcement were very rare. International researches were concerned with the subject of the airport security scanning problem, transportation security problem, port selection problem.
In order to determine home delivery service routes, conditions specified for each parcel such as customer-assigned delivery times and parcel contents should be considered, so the conventional route search algorithms have some limits to be applied for home delivery services. In this study, a multi-purpose route searching algorithm is suggested in order to deal with every requirement of deliveries that vary in delivery distances, contents and appointed times. A simulation study to verify the performances of the system with example data of Seoul and Kyungki provinces shows that it significantly improves the customer satisfaction and the productivity of delivery businesses.
Traveling salesman problem is to minimize the total cost for a traveling salesman who wants to make a tour given finite number of cities along with the cost of travel between each pair them, visiting each cities exactly once before returning home. Traveling salesman problem is known to be NP-hard, and it needs a lot of computing time to get the optimal solution, so that heuristics are more frequently developed than optimal algorithms. This study suggests a hybrid parallel genetic algorithm(HPGA) for traveling salesman problem The suggested algorithm combines parallel genetic algorithm, nearest neighbor search, and 2-opt. The suggested algorithm has been tested on 7 problems in TSPLIB and compared the results of existing methods(heuristics, meta-heuristics, hybrid, and parallel). Experimental results shows that HPGA could obtain good solution in total travel distance minimization.
Incheon Port has many advantages for import of log and timber for furniture. More than 50% of lumber which was imported is through Incheon Port. However, most companies move and set up their business by taking lease of workshop. Because of expensive cost of transportation, it is suggested to construct a lumber Industrial district in the North Port in Incheon. By researching the national plans about the North Port and Incheon Ports, an adequate acquaintance of lumber industry in Incheon has been realized. ills study conducted the economic effect analysis for lumber industry clustering and the necessity of cluster composition is derived. Then effectiveness analysis for lumber industry cluster composition is sequentially operated.
Supply chain for the economic development of East Asian economic development model, the study's purpose is to establish. Korea, Japan, China, Russia and Asia, including North Korea and get the status of economic development by focusing on key issues and proposed solutions, within a few years of the coming of a new East Asian economic integration of new supply chain would like to prepare for the era. Weight The weight of the center to the center of East Asia, looking for techniques to approach the supply chain scenario, the economic development strategies and measures were studied. East Asia's economic potential value of the supply chain, identify and recognize the importance and benefits should be Presents detailed country-specific development strategies and leading Asian economies will have to pay the supply chain. Republic of Korea's leading East Asian economies in order to supply the industry, industry development strategy as detailed in the running to move. North and South Korea for economic integration, the era of supply-chain economy, you need to prepare calmly.
It seems required to determine what might affect the technological innovation activities of manufacturing companies and what kind of role they could play for them to carry out technological innovation activities in an effective way. The objective of the present study is thus to conduct a depth empirical analysis of the structural relations among business environment, technological innovation activities and performance of manufacturing companies. From the analysis, following outcomes could be drawn: First, with regard to the relationship between business environment and technological innovation activities of manufacturing companies, it has become clear that the external environment is a factor that can influence technological innovation activities such as management of technical property, technological innovation system as well as technical network, while it exercises no impact upon adaptation of manufacturers to new technologies. The internal environment, on the other hand, turns out to have influence on such overall factors of technological innovation activities as management of technical property, technological innovation system, adaptation to new technologies and technical network; and Second, as for the relationship between technological innovation activities and their performance, it has been obvious that management of technical property and technological innovation system, both factors of technological innovation activities, affect the performance of product development and financial achievements of manufacturing companies. Their adaptation to new technologies will also affect their performance of product development as well as financial achievements. These findings suggest that it is important for manufacturing companies to set up an operating system that may be able to upgrade the practical applicability of their technological development activities in an attempt to promote performance of their technological innovation activities.
Company's survival in a changing business environment is depend on what kind of strategy will be used for facing this business competition society. For this, many companies continued to apply management techniques to improve the activities in this process has been running productivity-oriented activities to switch away from the quality has become a central activity. In other words, quality improvement activities (quality improvement activity) for the continuing businesses is an important strategic element. In this study, single-PPM (Single-PPM) the company's leading quality improvement activities will be used and browse to accommodate factors that affect a successful quality improvement activities, absolute requirement for companies to learn about the conditions to improve the quality of corporate tries to emphasize the importance of the activity.
In medium and small firm, the management system which is simple and where there is a practicality is required Ill)re than the management system which is complicated and minute of the centered around large company so that the introduction of the standard costs can be activated and it can be usefully used as a tool of management decisions. A difference between the standard costs introduction plan proposed in this paper and the preexistance study literature are as follows. In this paper, by breaking from the whole cost accounting aiming at all item, that is the traditional introduction method, and presenting the product cost accounting method by group the standards setting object was minimized and simplified. In this way, if the standards setting object is simplified, it is quick at the perimeter environment change as the little man power and flexibly it corresponds to and the cost information calculation which is exact with the setting up and maintenance of the efficient cost standard becomes available. As a result of applying for real through S corp., the usability of the method that the standard costs introduction method proposed in this paper produced the standard costs relatively short within period, it manages was verified. And the standard costs introduction method proposed in this paper went by the various cost information for each products, the management class did the management will decision which was objective and reasonable in the putting first.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of national and corporate brand image of Korea on chinese consumers' purchasing Intention, also the impact of China on korean consumers' purchasing Intention. And the second aim of the research is to provide Korean businessmen who are interested in chinese market with information about chinese consumers' purchasing behaviour. Data from 205 chinese and korean consumers were analysed. As the result of analyses, it was found that Korean country image positive affects corporate brand image(samsung) and Chinese country image negative affects corporate brand image(haier) and product image. Korean corporate brand image only affects product image on chinese consumers. The product image affects Korean and Chinese consumer's purchasing intention.
The purpose of this article is to suggest what is the desirable direction of economic relationship between Korea and China. The economic relationship between countries is based on how the present network is. As the economic relationship between countries grows, the network between countries will expand. In the past, the economic relationship between Korea and China is cooperative one from the viewpoint of international division of labor. Korean industries was focused on the value-added and mid-advanced technology products, while Chinese was focused on the labor-intensive products. As the China's economy grows for more than thirty years, there is a great change in China's economic policies and environment. China's industry structure is moving from the labor-intensive industry to technology-oriented industry. China's exports to the global market is increasing very fast, and China's domestic market is also growing. The change in Chinese industries' structure bring about severe competition in the global market. The expanding China's domestic market is also good opportunity as the new market in the world. The change in China's industrial structure needs for Korea to establish the 'New Network" between two countries. Korea has to grab the new opportunities in the China's domestic market and find new cooperative network with the products and industries.