This study tried to analyze the keywords of the papers published in the Korea Safety Management Science by using the social network analysis. In order to extract the keywords, information on journal articles published from 2018 to 2021 was extracted from the SCIENCE ON. Among the keywords extracted from a total of 129 papers, the keywords with similar meanings were standardized. The keywords used in the same paper were visualized by connecting them through a network. Four centrality indicators of the social network analysis were used to analyze the effect of the keyword. Safety, Safety management, Apartment, Fire hose, SMEs, Virtual reality, Machine learning, Waterproof time, R&D capability, and Job crafting were selected as the keywords analyzed with high influence in the four centrality indicators.
We attempted to provide an overview of the laws and current state of the 3D printing industry in South Korea and around the world, using the annual industry surveys and the Wohler report. Additionally, we reviewed articles relating to the potential exposure to hazards associated with 3D printing using metal materials. In South Korea, there were 406 3D printing-related businesses, employing 2,365 workers, and the market size was estimated at 455.9 billion won in 2021. Globally, the average growth rate of the 3D printing industry market over the past 10 years was 27.4%, and the market size was estimated at $11.8 billion in 2019. The United States had the highest cumulative installation ratio of industrial 3D printers, followed by China, Japan, Germany, and South Korea. A total of 6,168 patents related to 3D printing were registered in the US between 2010 and 2019. Harmful factors during metal 3D printing was mainly evaluated in the powder bed fusion and direct energy deposition printing types, and there is a case of material extrusion type with metal additive filaments. The number, mass, size distribution, and chemical composition of particles were mainly evaluated. Particle concentration increases during the opening of the chamber or post-processing. However, operating the 3D printer in a ventilated chamber can reduce particle concentration to the background level. In order to have a safe and healthy environment for 3D printing, it is necessary to accumulate and apply knowledge through various studies.
In modern society, the delivery service market has grown explosively due to rapid changes in social structure and the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, various problems such as injury to workers and an increase in human accidents are occurring due to the loading and unloading of parcels. In order to solve this problem, domestic company n is developing a “robot-based cargo loading and unloading system”. In developing a new technology system, quantitative reliability targets should be set for efficient operation and development. In this paper, reliability analysis was conducted through field data for the pneumatic gripper of the “robot-based cargo loading system”. The reliability of the failure data was analyzed to estimate the distribution parameters and MTTF. Random data was derived for the probability of occurrence of a failure with the estimated value. By repeating the simulation to predict the number and year of failures according to the estimated parameters of the probability distribution, it was proposed as a method that reflects realistic probabilities rather than calculating with simple arithmetic using the average MTTF previously used in the field.
Among the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, the Binder-Jetting printing technology is a method of spraying an adhesive on the surface of powder and laminate layer by layer. Recently, this technique has become a major issue in the production of large casting products such as ship-building, custom vehicles and so on. In this study, we performed research to make actual mold castings and increase mechanical property by using special sand and water-based binders. For use as a mold, it has a strength of more than 3MPa and permeability. Various experiments were carried out to obtain suitable them. The major process parameters were binder jetting volume, binder types, layer thickness and heat treatment condition. As a result of this study, the binder drop quantity was measured to be about 60 pico-liter, layer thickness was 100μm and the heat treatment condition was measured about 1,000℃ and compressive strength were measured to be more than 5MPa. The optimum condition of this experiment was established through actual casting of aluminum. The equipment used in this study was a Freeforms T400 model (SFS Co., Ltd.), and the printing area of 420 * 300 * 250mm and resolution of 600dpi can be realized.
The object of this study is to evaluate whether the means of egress of Jechon Sports Center and Miryang Sejong Hospital, where massive fire human casualties occurred in 2017 and 2018 respectively, comply with NFPA 101(Life Safety Code), and to suggest the need for supplementation of domestic means of egress regulations. The study evaluated the number and arrangement of the means of egress, travel distance, common path of travel, dead end and discharge from exit for each building by applying the means of egress regulations of NFPA 101. As a result of the evaluation through NFPA 101, the travel distance was appropriate, but some of the other items except for the travel distance did not meet NFPA 101. The regulations that need to be supplemented are 1)occupant load calculation 2)egress capacity calculation 3)continuous concept of means of egress 4)concept of common path of travel. It is especially necessary to revise the requirement for fire door of the evacuation floor(normal 1st floor) of the stairwell in case of below the five story building.
This study analyzed the effect of workers' socio-psychological burden factors on musculoskeletal disorders. A survey was conducted targeting office and field workers in the Seoul metropolitan area. Analysis was performed using the results of 357 surveys out of 400 surveys. The analysis results were derived as follows. First, the socio-psychological burden factor did not show statistically significant results for musculoskeletal disorders. Second, it was found that job stress factors also had a positive effect on musculoskeletal disorders. Third, social psychological burden factors were found to be more positive than office workers than field workers. Fourth, there was a statistically significant correlation between job stress and musculoskeletal disease risk scores. From the above results, job stress factors affect musculoskeletal disease risk factors (work frequency, pain level, and duration) and the increase in musculoskeletal disorders and the number of accidents.
Determination of explosion reference pressure is important in designing and testing flameproof enclosures (Ex d). Although relative humidity affects to explosion pressure, its effect is not well investigated for the gas group IIB, IIA, and I. This study tested explosion pressure for Ethylene (8 vol.%), Propane (4.6 vol.%), and Methane (9.8 vol.%), which are the representative gas of the gas group IIB, IIA, and I, at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure (1 atm) under different relative humidity (0% ~ 80%). Ethylene- and Propane-air mixed gases generally tended to decrease as the relative humidity increased; however, explosion pressure was largely dropped at 20% of relative humidity compared to 0% and 10% of relative humidity. On the other hand, Methane-air mixture gas showed similar pressures at 0% and 10% of relative humidity; but no explosion occurred at more than 20%. The results of this study can be used in setting a testing protocol of explosion reference pressure for designing and testing a flameproof enclosure.
The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the flame retardant performance of Japanese cypress(Chamaecyparis obtusa) plywood, commonly used in indoor decoration, furniture, and tableware, by treating it with three different fire retardants with different primary ingredients. The experiment was conducted in compliance with Article 31, Paragraph 2 of the Enforcement Decree of the Fire Facilities Installation and Management Act and Articles 4 and 7-2 of the Flame Retardant Performance Standards. After flame time, after glow time, char length, and char area were measured. As a result, first, after flame time was measured at 0 seconds regardless of whether the flame retardant treatment was applied. Second, after glow time was relatively long, measuring 22.7 seconds without treatment, which is likely due to the weak fire resistance and high concentration of carbon monoxide generated by the chemical characteristics of the Japanese cypress itself. Third, it was confirmed that the effects of the primary ingredient, phosphorus, in the flame retardant treatment varied depending on the technological development of the manufacturers of the same species of Japanese cypress plywood. In the future, it is expected that the results of this study will provide fundamental data to select flame retardant treatments that show high flame retardant performance according to the botanical characteristics of the wood.
This study aims to measure sedimentation status change with the changes in internal pressure for dry chemical extinguishers of various use periods and analyze the suitability of the fire extinguishers' performance criteria. When the internal pressure of the fire extinguisher is 0%, 2 out of 10 new dry chemical powders for the 5 elapsed years were noted to be suitable, including 3 recycled dry chemical powders with 5 elapsed years that were found eligible. One out of 10 new dry chemical powders for 10 elapsed years was shown as suitable. Also, one new dry chemical powder for 13 elapsed years was suitable. When the internal pressure of the fire extinguisher was 50%, all 10 out of 10 new dry chemical powders for 5 years, recycled one with 5 elapsed years, and a new one with 10 elapsed years were found to be suitable, while 9 new dry chemical powders for 13 years were shown as suitable. When the internal pressure of the fire extinguisher was normal, new ones with 5 elapsed years, recycled ones with 5 elapsed years, new ones with 10 elapsed years, and new ones with 13 elapsed years were all 10 out of 10 samples noted as suitable. In summarizing the experiment results, it was found that the sedimentation status, one of the fire extinguisher's physical properties experiments, affects the fire extinguisher's performance criteria rather than the change with use periods.