This study examines the trends of domestic and foreign smart industries and discusses safety and security issues. Based on the actual situation survey and interview of the smart factory, we would like to examine the perspectives on risks and threats. We will examine safety and health issues related to new harmful and risk factors that may occur in smart factories and suggest institutional development directions for future safety and health. First, a safety and health-related work environment for smart factory workers is investigated and interviews are conducted. Second, we investigate new risk factors and threats to prevent industrial accidents for workers in smart factories. The purpose of this study is to examine what are the new risk factors in the smart factory. In addition, we will try to find reasonable improvement measures by finding out the risks and threats of smart factories through case studies in advanced countries, on-site interviews and surveys.
In order to explore the job crafting experience of millennial safety workers, this study conducted a qualitative case research with five safety workers of S Energy from March 26 to September 27, 2021 . As a result of the analysis, task crafting showed ‘matching one’s strong suit with a given task’, ‘expanding work knowledge using social network service (SNS)’, and ‘making changes in job performance methods for preemptive safety management activities’. Also, Cognitive crafting showed ‘recognition of social vocation as a safety job’, ‘recognition of a role to grow as a safety management expert’, and ‘cognitive changes from means of organizational adaptation to enjoyment and energy of life’. At the same time, in relation crafting, ‘establishment of amicable relationships through SNS in non-face-to-face and rapid communicating situations’, ‘safety management made through with mutual cooperations between business people’, and ‘reborn as a mutual safety net in business relationships’ appeared. These can be used as basic data to accumulate the theoretical basis for job crafting research of millennial safety workers and to improve their job satisfaction. A follow-up study was proposed for safety workers with occupations of various kinds.
The purpose of this study is to reduce the probability of occurrence of electric fires as a preemptive preventive measure, and to strengthen the capability of preventing electric fires by strengthening the cooperative function between electric fire-related departments and establishing a cooperative system. In this study, the general aspects of electric fires were identified by reviewing the literature such as ignition mechanisms of electric fires. And the major electrical fires that occurred in the last 10 years were classified into ignition factors (short circuit, overload/overcurrent, and earth leakage/ground fault) and ignition sources (wiring/wiring appliances, electrical equipment/household appliances). And the 4M technique was used to analyze the potential causes of ignition at the fire site and to suggest preventive measures. In the case In this study, out of 48 electrical fires in the past 10 years, 16 short-circuit fires, 3 overload/ overcurrent fires, 3 short-circuit and earth fault fires, 16 fires in wiring/wiring appliances, and 10 fires in electrical equipment/home appliances classified as cases. And prevention measures were presented in terms of human, machine, media, and management by using the 4M technique. For the preemptive prevention of electric fires, strengthening the compulsory electrical safety inspection and making it mandatory to report when new or expanding electric facilities, charging a fee for electric safety inspection for detached houses and granting benefits subject to inspection completion, improvement of the electric safety voluntary inspection table and safety indications; It was suggested as a policy to organize and operate electrical safety inspection personnel in a two-person team (mixed), establish a close work cooperation system with related organizations, and strengthen electrical safety education and publicity.
Recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies are attracting attention as core technologies in the era of the 4th industrial revolution. These virtual and augmented reality technologies are being used in a variety of industries, including the construction industry, healthcare industry, and manufacturing industry, to innovate in communication and collaboration, education and simulation, customer service and reinvention of the customer experience. In this paper, VR-based experiential safety education was conducted for workers of shipbuilding companies in Ulsan city, and for them, the educational effectiveness such as immersion, site applicability, safety accident prevention, education satisfaction, overall performance, and safety behavior in VR-based safety experience education were measured. In addition, we examined whether the immersion of VR-based safety experience education affects site applicability, safety accident prevention, educational satisfaction, overall performance, and safety behavior. Furthermore, it was analyzed whether site applicability plays a mediating role in the relationship between immersion and safety accident prevention. As a result, it was found that the immersion of VR-based safety experience education affects site applicability, safety accident prevention effect, education satisfaction, overall performance, and safety behavior, and that site applicability mediates between immersion and safety accident prevention. Based on these results, we suggests a direction for the development of VR-based contents in the field of safety and health and the transformation of safety and health education in the future.
In this study, the experiment was conducted on a fire door(W × H = 0.98 m × 2.19 m) installed on the vestibule. The effective leakage area for each opening angles and closing forces derived from the impulse-momentum equation was compared and analyzed with the experimental results. As a result of the experiment, the major factors affecting the door closing forces were the pressure difference and the area of the door. The difference of door closing forces between measured and calculated values by the impulse-momentum equation showed a deviation of less than ±15% at the opening angles of 5°to 10°. At the door opening angle of 2.5°, the dynamic pressure was much higher than the measured static pressure, and this pressure difference is estimated to be air resistance acting to prevent the door from being completely closed.
The objective of this study was to understand which type of fire hose should be placed in indoor fireplug box upon analyzing the preparation time between rack-type fire hose and reel-type one. With respect to the type of hose, rack-type stacking method was used and hose preparation time was measured with 5 times of repeat test, separating men and women. Study results reveal that preparation time of reel-type fire hose took longer than that of rack-type one in both men and women. For both rack-type hose and reel-type hose, preparation time by two persons took shorter than that by one man. Also, preparation time by three persons took shorted than that by two women. Preparation time for both rack-type hose and reel-type one by men took shorter than that by women. In summary, it was confirmed that rack-type hose could be prepared within shorter time than reel-type one. Since the size of drum set in the reel-type fire hose is relatively small, it had some difficulty in preparation of fire hose timely.
This study is to check waterproof by number of twists of fire hose and measure the first waterproof time to analyze the relationship between twists of fire hose and first waterproof time and waterproof by position of twists so as to suggest the efficient plan to prevent twists of fire hose. Ordinary fire hose did not make waterproof in case that position of twists was near the nozzle with twists 5 times or more, while anti-twist fire hose had no problem for waterproof only with delayed time. Like ordinary fire hose, anti-twist fire hose also showed the tendency to increase the waterproof time in proportion to the number of twists. In case that the position of twists was near waterproof port even with 10 times of twists in anti-twist fire hose, the first waterproof time was increase by 0.63 seconds on average without any problem for waterproof, which was somewhat faster than that in ordinary fire hose. With respect to the position of twists, waterproof of anti-twist fire hose was affected more as the number of twists was increased more near the nozzle rather than near the waterproof port, like ordinary fire hose. In summary, anti-twist fire hose equipped with anti-twist tool at the middle connection port and the nozzle showed a good waterproof performance with delayed waterproof time regardless of number of twists, as a solution for the twist problem of ordinary fire hose.
In this study, according to the staking method of the fire hose in the indoor hydrant system, the number of kinks when the fire hose is deployed was measured and analyzed to examine how the staking method of the fire hose affects the kink when the hose is deployed. The fire hose staking method was classified into three types: donut-type, accordion-type, and hose hanger-type, and the walking speed and number of kinks were measured by repeating the experiment 5 times for male and female students. The results of the study are as follows. (1) Among the three types of fire hose staking methods, the donut-type staking method had an average of 92 times for male students and 86 times for female students on average. (2) The accordion-type and hose hanger-type staking methods showed similar results with an average of one or two kinks for both male and female students. (3) Regardless of the staking method, it was found that in general, male students with high walking speed had more kinking than female students with slow walking speed.
To ensure the safety and functionality of a railroad bridge, maintaining the integrity of the bridge via continuous structural health monitoring is important. However, most structural integrity monitoring methods proposed to date are based on modal responses which require the extracting process and have limited availability. In this paper, the applicability of the existing damage identification method based on free-vibration reponses to time-domain deflection shapes due to moving train load is investigated. Since the proposed method directly utilizes the time-domain responses of the structure due to the moving vehicles, the extracting process for modal responses can be avoided, and the applicability of structural health evaluation can be enhanced. The feasibility of the presented method is verified via a numerical example of a simple plate girder bridge.
Today’s manufacturers must respond quickly to customer needs. In particular, make-to-order companies are constantly striving to satisfy customer demand for products in order to secure more favorable conditions in the future through bidding. In this bidding process, quotations play a very important role in providing favorable conditions. And the most important content that companies strive to satisfy their customers is the product's performance. Therefore, a company can attract customers and secure economic profits through good quotations, but it can be said that the first priority is to match the performance of the products requested by the customers. That is, when a company creates a quotation, it is important to structure the quotation according to the performance of the product. Thus, this paper intends to present a quotation management framework and a quotation BOM information model for constructing quotations efficiently in make-to-order manufacturing. And, in order to prove the usefulness of the proposed quotation management framework, we presents an case of the construction of an quotation management system based on the JAVA platform. As a result, the integrated quotation management system based on the proposed quotation management framework and quotation BOM has been successfully operated in a make-to-order company that manufactures marine engines.
The construction of smart factories for government SMEs is not easy due to the lack of professional manpower. The use of retired professionals is a way to solve the problem to some extent and to solve the job problem of seniors by effectively utilizing social assets. This study examines the effectiveness of using Meister based on a survey of 195 companies participating in the Smart Meister Support Program. As a result, the better pre-participation readiness and the better management and coordination of change during the participation, the more significant influence was on Meister’s ability development and corporate performance. In particular, it was confirmed that Meister’s competence plays a role in both ‘pre-participation readiness and business performance’ and ‘between change management during participation and business performance’. In order to improve the performance of the smart meister business in the future, it is necessary to proactively promote the purpose and purpose of the business targeting companies that wish to participate in the business. In addition, it was found that it is necessary to support the development of change management in order to minimize the resistance to innovation during the project. It will be possible to enhance social competitiveness by resolving senior jobs and strengthening the competitiveness of SMEs by discovering and utilizing Meister, who is an expert among retirees.
In this paper, we propose a method for diagnosing overload and working load of collaborative robots through performance analysis of machine learning algorithms. To this end, an experiment was conducted to perform pick & place operation while changing the payload weight of a cooperative robot with a payload capacity of 10 kg. In this experiment, motor torque, position, and speed data generated from the robot controller were collected, and as a result of t-test and f-test, different characteristics were found for each weight based on a payload of 10 kg. In addition, to predict overload and working load from the collected data, machine learning algorithms such as Neural Network, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Gradient Boosting models were used for experiments. As a result of the experiment, the neural network with more than 99.6% of explanatory power showed the best performance in prediction and classification. The practical contribution of the proposed study is that it suggests a method to collect data required for analysis from the robot without attaching additional sensors to the collaborative robot and the usefulness of a machine learning algorithm for diagnosing robot overload and working load.
This paper presents a periodic replacement policy for a system subject to shocks when the system is operating for a finite random horizon. The system is subject to shocks during operation, and each shock causes downgrading of the system performance and makes it more expensive to run by the additional running cost. Shocks arrive according to a nonhomogeneous or a renewal process, and we develop periodic replacement policies under a finite random operating horizon. The optimum periodic replacement interval which minimizes the total operating cost during the horizon is found. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the results.
In the past, manufacturing-oriented industries focused on improving labor productivity to achieve economic growth. Korea is changing from a labor-intensive industry to a technology-intensive industry in order to occupy a competitive edge compared to other countries. Recently, a lot of investment has been made not only in technology-intensive industries but also in information industries. Therefore, it is developing in various forms such as special technology, platform industry, and virtual reality as a technology-intensive industry and information industry field. In this social phenomenon, the necessity of starting a business using new ideas and technologies is increasing. Therefore, universities also need entrepreneurship education for their students, and it is necessary to investigate how the contents of the university's start-up education support, individual achievement needs, and the degree of acquisition of start-up knowledge affect the establishment of business strategies necessary for start-ups.
The composition of human resources in industrial sites is becoming global. In Korea, too, the proportion of foreign members in all industrial fields and production sites is increasing. This is the reason why an approach that reflects this reality is needed in the basic unit of competitive sources. Competitiveness starts with value creation, and this progresses through field innovation. Through empirical analysis of this study, it was analyzed that South Korea members showed active actions and attitudes in developing, promoting, and realizing ideas when they strongly recognized the real meaning of empowerment given by leaders. On the other hand, it was found that foreign members do not know the meaning of empowerment itself, so they are often unable to play an active role in the development, promotion, and realization of ideas. In fact, it was analyzed that foreign members generally did not experience positive interactions with LMX and were exposed to simple tasks and controls. In other words, they are being discriminated against in terms of communication problems, compensation system, and work environment. In particular, this phenomenon is exacerbated in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Situational response to foreign workers through improvement of LMX and empowerment should be evaluated as a key management task in a situation where productivity improvement and job unit innovation are urgently needed.
It is getting more intensified with the competition among participating companies for global market share in major industrial fields. The situation is accelerating especially within the top 5 market share, and these include electric vehicles, semiconductors, chemicals, and shipbuilding industries. The key to the advantage over the competition within a strategic group is which company leads the innovation in the field. On-the-ground innovation refers to job-based innovation. This paper aims to analyze job unit innovation in the structure of empowerment, LMX, and job crafting. Existing studies on job crafting have suggested a causal structure based on job design in the traditional sense, and there are not many scholars who study the causal structure using a job situational model. Therefore, this paper takes an approach from the perspective of the job situation. As a result of the study, LMX showed a moderating effect on the relationship between autonomy provision and job crafting. While, in the relationship between meaing-giving and cognitive crafting, there is no significant moderating effect shown on the relationship between autonomy provision and cognitive crafting. Therefore, the results of the analysis in this study suggest that the meaning of jobs and participation in decision-making should be managed in an integrated way in structural and design areas, not just qualitative factors such as empowerment and leadership.