This study focuses on the application of a new measurement method that quantifies the residual color of filtered water using a spectrocolorimeter after filtering the discolored substances. It was confirmed through the color and turbidity cross-test that the discolored substances cannot be measured effectively with the current legal color and turbidity test method. Therefore, the National Institute of Environmental Research's filter testing method, which involves filtering the sample through 0.45 μm filter and visually inspecting the color, was improved. A membrane filter colorimetry (MFC) method was established by measuring the color difference (ΔE*ab(65)) of the filtered filter using a spectrophotometer and expressing it as filter color unit (FCU). Using the MFC method, the FCU for reference materials such as iron and manganese, as well as field samples, was measured. The results showed a high correlation with turbidity, and the color difference patterns varied depending on the type of reference materials and field samples. This indicates that the MFC method is an effective new measurement method of discolored tap water.
Due to the issue of the sustainability in transportation area, the number of electric vehicles has significantly increased. Most automakers have decided or planned to manufacture the electric vehicles rather than carbon fueled vehicles. However, there are still some problems to figure out for the electric vehicles such as long charging time, driving ranges, supply of charging stations. Since the speed of growing the number of electric vehicles is faster than that of the number of charging stations, there are lack of supplies of charging stations for electric vehicles and imbalances of the location of the charging stations. Thus, the location problem of charging stations is one of important issues for the electric vehicles. Studies have conducted to find the optimal locations for the charging stations. Most studies have formulated the problem with deterministic or hierarchical models. In this paper, we have investigated the fluctuations of locations and the capacity of charging stations. We proposed a mathematical model for the location problem of charging stations with the vehicle routing problem. Numerical examples provide the strategy for the location routing problems of the electric vehicles.
Transportation in urban area has been getting hard to fulfill the demand on time. There are various uncertainties and obstacles related with road conditions, traffic congestions, and accidents to interrupt the on-time deliveries. With this situation, the last mile logistics has been a keen issue for researchers and practitioners to find the best strategy of the problem. A way to resolve the problem is to use parcel lockers. Parcel locker is a storage that customers can pick up their products. Transportation vehicles deliver the products to parcel lockers instead of all customer sites. Using the parcel lockers, the total delivery costs can be reduced. However, the inconvenience of customer has to increase. Thus, we have to optimal solution to balance between the total delivery costs and customers' inconvenience. This paper formulates a mathematical model to find the optimal solution for the vehicle routing problem and the location problem of parcel lockers. Experimental results provide the viability to find optimal strategy for the routing problem as well as the location problem.
ROK Navy intends to secure the Korean-type aircraft carrier in order to effectively prepare for various future security threats. In general, the Korean national competency is considered to be at the level of having an aircraft carrier, but it is unclear what scale aircraft carrier would be appropriate. In this study, the efficiency was evaluated through the relative comparison between national competency(national power, economic power) and the scale of aircraft carriers, and the optimal scale of the Korean-type aircraft carrier that could be acquired was presented. A DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis) model was applied to aircraft carriers(19 aircraft carriers in 11 countries) currently in operation and scheduled to be possessed in the world. As input variables, CINC(Composite Index of National Capability) and GDP(Gross Domestic Product), which are the most widely used as indicators of national and economic power, and as output variables, the full-load displacement, length, and width of aircraft carriers were selected. ARIMA(short-term within 5 years) and simple regression(long-term over 5 years) were used to estimate the future national competency of each country at the time of aircraft carriers acquisition. The relative efficiency score of the Korean-type aircraft carrier currently being evaluated is 1.062, and it was evaluated as small-scale aircraft carrier compared to the national competency. Based on Korean national competency, the optimal scale of the Korean-type aircraft carrier calculated by aggregating benchmark groups, is 58,308.1 tons of full-load displacement, 279.4m in length, and 68.3m in width.
Artificial intelligence is driving the Fourth Industrial Revolution and is in the spotlight as a general-purpose technology. As the data collection from the battlefield increases rapidly, the need to us artificial intelligence is increasing in the military, but it is still in its early stages. In order to identify maritime targets, Republic of Korea navy acquires images by ISAR(Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar) of maritime patrol aircraft, and humans make out them. The radar image is displayed by synthesizing signals reflected from the target after radiating radar waves. In addition, day/night and all-weather observations are possible. In this study, an artificial intelligence is used to identify maritime targets based on radar images. Data of radar images of 24 maritime targets in Republic of Korea and North Korea acquired by ISAR were pre-processed, and an artificial intelligence algorithm( ResNet-50) was applied. The accuracy of maritime targets identification showed about 99%. Out of the 81 warship types, 75 types took less than 5 seconds, and 6 types took 15 to 163 seconds.