This study investigated the quality characteristics of cookies containing capsaicin, the main source of spicy taste in pepper, which is well known for its various functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities, as well as pain-relief effect. Cookie samples were made by adding the capsaicin powder at different levels, including 40 mg% (C1), 85 mg% (C2), and 150 mg% (C3). In this study, measurement of the moisture, pH, color, spread factor, hardness, anti-oxidant activity, and sensory evaluation of the cookies was carried out. The results showed that the anti-oxidant activity increased when more capsaicin powder was added to the cookies (p＜0.001). The moisture also increased with increasing capsaicin powder content (p＜0.05), while the pH did not show any significant changes. As for the colors, the L value and b value decreased as more capsaicin powder was added, while the a value increased. The spread factor also increased significantly with the increase of capsaicin powder (p＜0.01). Although the hardness increased with capsaicin powder content, no statistically significant differences were observed among the various cookies. In the sensory evaluation, Cookies containing 40 mg of capsaicin obtained the highest score in color, while cookies containing 150 mg of capsaicin showed the highest score in taste, texture, and overall acceptability.
Aloe is an attractive potential food source because it has functional uses. It has been widely used as a well-being food and drink. The antioxidant activity was estimated by measuring DPPH free radical scavenging activity. We investigated the quality characteristics of cookies prepared by adding various concentrations of aloe powder (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, all w/w) as a substitute for flour. In this study, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, moisture content, and hardness of cookies significantly increased with increasing aloe powder, while the pH, spread factor and L and b values slightly decreased. Sensory evaluation scores in terms of texture were shown to be very similar statistically, but color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability scores were lower than the control. As a result of this study, the quality of cookies with the addition of 1% aloe powder were the most suitable in terms of taste, flavor, texture, and sensory properties.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of cookies containing mugwort powder, which is well known for its various functions and biological activity. Cookie samples were made by adding the mugwort powder at different levels of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5%. In this study, moisture, pH, color, spread factor, hardness, antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of cookies were examined. The pH and moisture were increased when increasing levels of mugwort powder were used. The L, a and b color values were significantly (p<0.001) decreased when increasing levels of mugwort powder were used. The spread factor of the cookies was significantly (p<0.01) decreased when increasing levels of mugwort powder were used.. The hardness and DPPH radical scavenging activity of cookies were significantly (p<0.001) increased when increasing levels of mugwort powder were used. Cookies containing 3% of mugwort powder showed the highest taste and texture scores. The scores for Flavor and color decreased when more mugwort powder was added.
본 연구는 여러 가지 기능성과 생리활성을 가지고 있는 도 라지를 활용하고자 도라지 분말을 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% 첨가하 여 도라지 쿠키를 제조한 후 그 품질 특성을 측정하였다. 도 라지 분말의 첨가량이 증가할수록 쿠키의 수분 함량과 pH 가 낮아졌다. 쿠키의 색도는 도라지 분말의 첨가량이 많아질 수록 명도(L)는 감소했으며, 적색도(a)와 황색도(b)는 증가하였 다(p<0.001, p<0.01). 쿠키의 퍼짐성 지수는 도라지 분말의 첨 가량이 많아질수록 높아졌으나, 도라지 분말의 첨가량과 쿠 키의 퍼짐성 간에는 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 나타내지 않 았다. 도라지 쿠키의 경도는 첨가량의 증가와 함께 낮아지는 것으로 나타났다. 도라지 쿠키의 관능적 특성은 1% 첨가군이 색과 맛, 조직감, 전체적인 기호도가 가장 높았으며, 풍미는 무첨가군이 가장 높았고, 도라지 분말 첨가량이 증가할수록 낮았다(p<0.001).
황백 껍질은 황벽나무(Phellodendron amurense)의 건조된 수피로부터 얻어진다. 이 수피는 한국의 전통 한약제로서, 설사, 황달, 무릎과 발의 통증, 요도관 및 피부 감염증에 폭넓게 사용되어 왔다. 본 연구는 황벽나무의 메탄올 추출액으로부터 항균성 화합물 분리를 위해 CPC 방법으로 효과적으로 수행하였다. 두 용매의 CPC 최적조성은 n-butanol:acetic acid:water(4:1:5 v/v/v)이었다. 이동상의 유속은 1,000 rpm 회전력에서 상승법으로 분당 3 ㎖ 속도로 전개시켰다. CPC에서 분리된 분획분은 prep-HPLC로 정제하였다. 분리된 palmatine은 1H, 13C-NMR, ESI-MS 데이터 분석으로 확인하였다.
We investigated the quality characteristics of cookies prepared following the addition of various concentrations of used Hongkuk powder (0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, all w/w) as a substitute for flour. In this study, the moisture content of dough decreased and pH increased by adding Hongkuk powder. The L and b value were decreased significantly, but the a value of cookies increased by addition of Hongkuk powder. The spread factor of cookies was slightly decreased by the addition of Hongkuk powder. The hardness of the control group was higher than that of the cookies prepared with different levels of Hongkuk powder. The result of the sensory score showed that cookies added with 1% Hongkuk powder had higher taste, flavor, and overall acceptability scores than other samples. As a result of this study, the quality of cookies with the addition of 1% Hongkuk powder were the most suitable in terms of its taste, flavor, texture, and sensory properties.
To reproduce the brewing process of Hongkuk-ju and to identify the functional properties of it, Hongkuk-ju was brewed using different additions of Hongkuk (100%, 90%, 70%, 50%) and Nuruk (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%). The quality elements, including pH, total acidity, reducing sugar content, alcohol content and pigments (yellow, red, monacolin K and citrinin), were measured. The pH values of Hongkuk-ju showed a slight difference (pH 4.08～4.58) right after the 1st stage mash; further, the pH on all groups (H1, H2, H3 and H4) in the terminal of the 2nd stage mash (9 days in fermentation) were similar, ranging approximately at pH 3.70. The total acidity change did not show a difference directly the 1st stage mash (nearby 0.2 %); however, it began to show a slight difference at the terminal of the 2nd stage mash between the range of 0.69～0.76%. The residual reducing sugar of the content was decreased with the increased Nuruk content. The alcohol concentrations of the treatment brew with Nuruk ranging from 12.3% to 13.7% were higher than Hongkuk on its own. The yellow and red pigment contents of Hongkuk-ju ranged from 7.2～8.8 O.D. units (yellow pigment) and from 4.4～5.1 O.D. units (red pigment). The production of monacolin K and citrinin was the highest (9.48 ㎎/㎏ and 10.14 ㎎/㎏) when the treatment solely brewed Hongkuk. The concentration of Nuruk and the preparation of the seed mash from it were critical factors compared to the treatment of rice in brewing Hongkuk-ju
In order to produce Hongkuk-ju, the production and characterization of Hongkuk (Monascus red koji) by Monascus anka KCTC 6121 were investigated. The optimum cultural conditions for the production of enzyme (α-amylase and glucoamylase) and pigment (yellow and red) from this strain on solid culture (steamed rice) were examined. The results showed that the production of α-amylase and glucoamylase reached the highest for 9 days and 8 days, respectively. Since then, the productions decreased slightly. The production of yellow and red pigments reached the highest for 8 days, decreasing slightly soon after. The optimal content of the initial moisture equally presented 30% in the enzyme and pigment production. After that, the enzyme production decreased slowly, whereas pigment production decreased sharply. The optimal temperature of the culture also showed 30℃ in the production of enzyme and pigment. It was found that the initial inoculum size in enzyme and pigment production was 10% and 20%, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the production of monacolin K and citrinin was 74.35 ㎎/㎏ and 5 ㎎/㎏ for 12 days, respectively.
We investigated the quality characteristics of cookies prepared after the addition of various concentration of used guava leaf powder(0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, all w/w) as a substitute for flour. In this study, as guava leaf powder concentration rose, there was a decrease in the water content level. In addition, color, spread factor, hardness and sensory evaluation of the cookies were examined. The results showed that with an increase in guava leaf powder concentration, the L value decreased significantly, while the values for a and b of cookies increased when more guava leaf power was added to cookies. The spread factor of cookies decreased, but the hardness of cookies increased significantly, as guava leaf powder concentration increased. Cookies containing 0% and 3% of guava leaf powder showed a similar sensory evaluation score in terms of color, taste and flavor of the cookies. In the case of texture and overall consumer acceptability, cookies with 3% of guava leaf powder showed the highest score.