This study aimed to investigate antioxidant activities from 11 forest plants, and determine their total phenolics, flavonoids and proantocyanidins contents. In addition, the antioxidant activities were correlated with antioxidant compounds. Among the samples, Cornus officinalis, Castanea crenata, Lindera erythrocarpa, Carpinus laxiflora and Pourthiaea villosa showed significantly higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50=21.12~28.93 μg/mL) and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothia zoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) (IC50=28.18~52.55 μg/mL) radical scavenging ability with reducing power (IC50=59.91~93.64 μg/mL) than other plants; and C. crenata, L. erythrocarpa and Rubus coreanus showed strong nitric oxide (NO) inhibition activity (≥60%). In addition, L. erythrocarpa, C. laxiflora and P. villosa showed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values (≥1,100 μM TE/g sample) than other samples. High total phenolic contents were observed in C. crenata (429.11 mg GAE/g), L. erythrocarpa (437.11 mg GAE/g), C. laxiflora (408.67 mg GAE/g) and P. villosa (404.11 mg GAE/g). The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity with reducing power were significantly correlated with total phenolic contents (R2=0.71~0.79), but total phenolic contents were not correlated with NO inhibition and ORAC (R2=0.35~0.43). Therefore, these results suggested that C. officinalis, C. crenata, L. erythrocarpa, C. laxiflora and P. villosa are potential natural antioxidative candidate ingredients.
2006년부터 2009년 말까지 월악산에 서식하는 산양의 겨울철 배설물을 관찰한 결과, 배설물 속에 헛개나무 종자가 포함되어 있었고, 봄철에 그 배설물에서 헛개나무 종자가 발아하는 것을 확인하였다. 산양이 헛개나무 종자의 발아에 미치는 영향을 살펴보기 위하여 동일 시기 및 장소에서 산양의 배설물 속에서 수집한 헛개나무 종자 600개와 산양이 먹지 않은 종자 600개를 포트에 심어 비교, 관찰하였다. 그 결과, 산양 배설물 속에서 추출한 헛개나무 종자는 발아율이 32.5%였으나, 산양이 먹지 않은 종자는 발아율이 0.8%로 나타났다. 산양 서식지에서 산양이 먹이원으로 섭취하는 헛개나무 종자는 산양이 서식하지 않는 지역보다 40배 정도 발아율이 높은 것으로 확인되었다.
The size of crystallites in mono-dispersed cubic silver bromide grains was measured by applying a powder X-ray diffraction method and Scherrer's equation to grains that were suspended in swollen gelatin layers. In order to evaluate the existence of defects, the measured crystallite size was compared to those measured by using a scanning electron microscope. In the case of the grains prepared by the controlled double jet method, the size of crystallites was equal to the edge length of the grains that had edge lengths smaller than 400 nm. This result proved the usefulness of the above-stated method for measuring the size of crystallites and also evaluating the presence of any crystal defect in each grain. In the case of the grains, which were precipitated in the presence of a sensitizing dye and potassium iodide, the size of crystallites was smaller than the edge's length, indicating the discontinuities in the grains introduced during the precipitation process.
Cryopreservation is an effective method for the long-term storage of fish sperm. However, because of a lack of methods for cryopreserving fish eggs and embryos, a technical challenge remains in preserving maternally inherited cytoplasmic compartments. Here, we aimed to generate functional eggs and sperm in sterile rainbow trout hatchlings by transplanting cryopreserved ovarian germ cells into the peritoneal cavity. Immature ovaries were isolated from 9-month-old transgenic rainbow trout, whose ovarian germ cells expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cryopreservation was optimized by testing several different cryoprotective agents. Dominant orange-colored, pvasa-Gfp transgenic rainbow trout females served as donors, and wild-type triploid rainbow trout served as germ cell recipients. Viability and transplantation efficiencies of frozen ovarian germ cells were stable for up to 1,185 days. Ovarian germ cells frozen for 8months efficiently differentiated into eggs and sperm in the ovaries and testes of recipient fish. Inseminating the resultant eggs and sperm generated viable offspring displaying the donor phenotypes (orange body color, green fluorescence, XX ovaries, and matching karyotype). This study represents the first success in generating functional gametes from cryopreserved female germ cells in any fish species, which should facilitate the conservation of protogynous fishes, female heterogametic fish, and currently endangered fish.