PURPOSES : This study aimed to analyze the primary maintenance procedures and safety inspection checklist characteristics for suspension bridges. The study referred to the current suspension bridge safety management manual and conducted an on-site safety inspection. By comparing and analyzing any missing or inadequate inspection and management procedures, the study identified major inspection and management areas requiring improvement, and proposed potential solutions. METHODS : The study referred to the current suspension bridge safety management manual and conducted on-site safety inspections. By comparing and analyzing any missing or inadequate inspection and management procedures, the study identified major inspection and management areas requiring improvement, and proposed potential solutions. RESULTS : The study found that suspension bridges are currently inefficiently managed compared to other facilities subject to more rigorous maintenance and safety inspection. Therefore, maintenance and safety inspection procedures require improvement. CONCLUSIONS : For effective safety management and to reduce potential accident risk factors arising from negligent management, major improvements were suggested. Scientific maintenance and safety management could be achieved by incorporating enhancements into statutory requirements and improving management and inspection procedures. This long-term approach is likely to be more economical than the current methods, which lead to higher maintenance and repair costs and increased social costs from traffic accidents.
PURPOSES : Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a cheaper and easier to installer fire suppressant than other extinguishing gases and is easy to install, but extinguishes fires by is suffocation. As a result, suffocation accidents continue to occur in facilities equipped with CO2 fire-extinguishing facilities, Emission standards have yet to be established. This study aims to address the issue. METHODS : To effectively remove CO2 emitted from installed systems, we reviewed and analyzed previous related research and existing international standards. RESULTS : In protected areas where CO2 fire-extinguishing systems are installed, emission facilities should discharge the emitted CO2 before it enters the protected spaces. CO2 sensors can determine whether safe entry is possible or whether respirators are required. CONCLUSIONS : This study presented a specific installation method for emission facilities capable of actively discharging CO2. Applying this method is expected to contribute to improving safety in facilities equipped with CO2 fire-extinguishing facilities.
PURPOSES : This study aimed to secure the work space in alarm valve rooms to ensure stable working conditions for the engineers. METHODS : We analyzed situations where alarm valve room work spaces were inadequately secured posing a problem. Using the Ovako working posture analysis system (OWAS) method, we measured the body size of adult male technicians and their tools to analyze the actual space needed for them to maintain a healthy posture while working. On this basis, we proposed regulations governing workspace size and acceptable durations for unstable body postures. RESULTS : By measuring valve room work space and technician body size, we found that the workspace was inadequate for technicians. Applying OWAS showed that securing more space in the valve room improved the construction stability. CONCLUSIONS : Regulations on valve room size and appropriate work space for technicians will improve construction and inspection stability. This reduces the probability of poor construction and inadequate inspection, increasing the reliability of the firefighting facility system.
PURPOSES : Sprinkler facilities play a crucial role in extinguishing fires in the early stages of a building blaze. Data indicate that more than 96% of fires are suppressed by sprinklers before growing out of control. However, corrosion and pitting of the sprinkler piping can reduce system performance as facilities age. The purpose of this study is to develop an eco-friendly water-soluble corrosion inhibitor to improve the reliability and longevity of sprinkler piping. METHODS : This study compared and analyzed silicate-based sprinkler piping shrinkage agents as corrosion inhibitor against existing commercial options. Tests were conducted to evaluate reactivity with fire extinguishing water, including electrolyzed reduced water and normal water. The anticorrosive performance of the silicate-based corrosion inhibitor was evaluated under various conditions to establish suitability before potential development or commercialization. RESULTS : The new corrosion inhibitor demonstrated eco-friendly performance. In testing, none of the primary four hazardous substances that pose the most risk of harm to the human body (specifically, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)) were detected. The inhibitor effectively reduced corrosion of carbon steel (SPP), with weight loss rates averaging 0.12% and not exceeding 0.27%. For copper (CDA 110) weight loss rates were up to 0.03%. Testing under constant temperature and humidity conditions show that the inhibitor kept weight loss was below 0.002 g, with no significant numerical value for the weight loss rate. Overall, the results indicate the potential for an environmentally-safe corrosion inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS : The optimal silicate-based sprinkler system can provide real-time sensor information such as oxygen saturation, pH concentration, and total dissolved solids (TDS). These metrics are closely related to the aging process. By linking this system with an aging monitoring solution, maintenance costs and safety could be improved over the lifespan of the sprinkler system. The sensors and monitoring capabilities are expected to enhance maintenance efficiency and equipment reliability.
PURPOSES : This study aims to propose drone-command standard operating procedure (SOP) guidelines and Analyze their potential application to increase the use and utility of drones in urban disaster situations. Although the effectiveness and efficiency of obtaining disaster-situation information through drones have been verified by previous studies and practical experience, a survey of actual drone usability indicated a utilization rate of only approximately 4.13%. METHODS : To provide guidance for improving drone command SOPs, prior research and relevant literature were reviewed to identify commonalities between disaster-response command and control and drone use. A sample of 73 active-duty firefighters, including incident commanders (ICs) and drone pilots, were surveyed and interviewed. The data were analyzed and categorized to establish the reasons why drones are not actively used in urban disaster-response procedures. RESULTS : The primary reasons identified for not actively utilizing drones in urban disaster areas were the lack of a drone command and control system and the lack of clear criteria for when to use drones in disaster situations. In addition, many problems were found in drone-operation procedures, including emergency flight approval, securing takeoff and landing sites, and accident burden due to urban flight obstacles. To address the issues identified, standards were proposed for the type, size, and scope of urban disasters requiring drone response; for accident-prevention on basic missions and through flight safety procedures; and for installing a video transmission and reception system to easily share drone video information with ICs. CONCLUSIONS : Application of the drone-command SOP guidelines to actual urban disaster situations by disaster type will help to improve the efficiency of information acquisition and flight safety. This is expected to enable increased drone utilization. In future, extension of the research reported in this paper beyond the Seoul metropolitan area via additional follow-up studies has the potential to establish applicability of the proposed SOP guidelines to a wide variety of environments and organizational characteristics.
본 연구는 딸기의 삽목 육묘 시 묘소질을 향상시키고 품질을 증진시키기 위한 지베렐린 효과를 검증하기 위해 수행되었다. 품종은 ‘설향’을 대상으로 하였고, 삽목 시 삽수의 기부를 30, 60분간 GA3 50, 100, 150mg·L-1에 침지 처리하고 증류수 침 지를 대조구로 두었다. 정식 시 묘소질 조사 결과 엽수와 SPAD 값은 지베렐린 침지시간이 길수록 증가하였고, 초장, 엽병장, 엽장, 엽폭, 엽면적은 침지시간과 농도 간의 상호작용에 따라 유의하게 값이 변하였다. 관부직경은 같은 농도라 할지라도 침지시간에 따른 차이가 나타났으며 30분, 100mg·L-1 처리를 제외하고 모두 직경이 8.0mm 이상으로 우량한 묘가 생성되 었으며, T/R률은 30분, 50mg·L-1 처리에서 유의하게 작아 식 물체 활력이 가장 우수했다. 양자수율은 농도가 150mg·L-1일 때 저조하였고, 지베렐린 처리 농도가 높을수록 양자수율이 감소하는 경향을 나타냈다. NPQ는 대조구 대비 30분, 150mg·L-1 처리에서 유의하게 작아 묘 스트레스 감소에 효과 가 있었다. 항산화물 함량은 30분, 50mg·L-1 처리와 60분, 150mg·L-1 처리에서 높게 나타났고, 정식 후 생육조사 결과 화아분화 정도에 미치는 지베렐린의 부정적 영향은 없었다. 따라서, ‘설향’ 딸기의 삽목 육묘 시 지베렐린 처리는 정식묘 양성에 효과가 있는 것을 확인할 수 있었으며, 이때 대조구 대 비 생육 증진 및 품질 향상을 위해서는 삽수 기부를 50mg·L-1 의 지베렐린에 30분 침지처리하는 것이 보다 적정한 것으로 판단되었다.
The effects of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Si alloys fabricated by high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) were investigated. The HEBM-free sintered alloy primarily contained Mg2Si, Q-AlCuMgSi, and Si phases. Meanwhile, the HEBM-sintered alloy contains Mg-free Si and θ-Al2Cu phases due to the formation of MgO, which causes Mg depletion in the Al matrix. Annealing without and with HEBM at 500oC causes partial dissolution and coarsening of the Q-AlCuMgSi and Mg2Si phases in the alloy and dissolution of the θ-Al2Cu phase in the alloy, respectively. In both alloys, a thermally stable α-AlFeSi phase was formed after long-term heat treatment. The grain size of the sintered alloys with and without HEBM increased from 0.5 to 1.0 μm and from 2.9 to 6.3 μm, respectively. The hardness of the sintered alloy increases after annealing for 1 h but decreases significantly after 24 h of annealing. Extending the annealing time to 168 h improved the hardness of the alloy without HEBM but had little effect on the alloy with HEBM. The relationship between the microstructural factors and the hardness of the sintered and annealed alloys is discussed.
This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics of domestic 'Sulhyang' strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) seedlings and to analyze their relationships in order to develop a growth prediction model. Fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area were measured to validate the newly developed growth model. The relative growth rate (RGR) of ‘Sulhyang’ seedlings’ dry weight was an average of 0.026 g·g-1·d-1, and it increased to 0.066 g·g-1·d-1 on the 49th day after transplanting (DAT). The relationship between DAT and RGR was represented as RGR (dry weight)(g·g- 1·d-1) = 0.0392/(1 + exp(–(DAT – 34.9940)/5.8662)). The crop growth rate (CGR) was an average of 0.060 g·m-2·d-1, and it increased to 0.211 g·m-2·d-1 on the 70th DAT. The relationship between DAT and CGR was calculated as CGR (dry weight)(g·m-2·d-1) = 0.1293/(1 + exp(–(DAT – 49.3917)/6.0928)). The relationship between shoot fresh weight (y) and shoot dry weight (x) per plant showed a linear relationship of y = 4.3189x + 0.7812 (R2 = 0.9976). Fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf area with respect to DAT and cumulative temperature increased exponentially, and sigmoid curve models were developed based on these data. The model with the highest coefficient of determination was found for the relationship between shoot dry weight (y) and cumulative temperature (x), represented as y = 14.2285/(1 + exp(–(x – 1590.1295)/377.8112)) (R2 = 0.9715). The results of this study can be utilized as valuable information for establishing a systematic management system for seedling production using strawberry cutting propagation methods. For the development of a more precise growth prediction model in the future, it is necessary to analyze and apply a wider range of growth indicators and meteorological factors related to strawberry seedlings.
This research was conducted to analyze the relationship between the induction time of runners and the growing degree days for domestic strawberry cultivars, 'Sulhyang' and 'Arihyang'. Runners were induced at 15-day intervals over five periods, starting from late April to early June, and the study compared the number of runner formations and temperature changes for each period while it also investigated the plantlet quality on the transplanting date. Based on back calculations from the transplanting date of September 18th, 'Sulhyang' required induction from late April to early May to achieve 70-day-old plantlets and from late April to mid-May for 60-day-old plantlets. On the other hand, 'Arihyang' needed induction from late April for 70-day-old plantlets and from late April to early May for 60-day-old plantlets. To secure about 20 daughter plants, the growing degree days needed to be around 1,000°C, and a delay in runner induction led to a delay in formation of daughter plants. The relationship between growing degree days and runner formation was expressed as the following quadratic equations: for 'Sulhyang,' y = 9E-06x2 + 0.0124x – 2.4806 (R2 = 0.9696), and for 'Arihyang,' y = 1E-06x2 + 0.0192x – 2.9274 (R2 = 0.9431), and these equations showed high correlations. The crown diameter on the transplanting date was thickest in mid-May for 'Sulhyang', and it tended to increase with delayed runner induction for 'Arihyang'. In conclusion, this study confirmed that the number of daughter plants and growth characteristics varied depending on strawberry cultivars and the timing of runner inducement time. The relationship equations derived through measurements of growing degree days can be used as the fundamental data for reasonable production of daughter plants in the future.
본 연구에서는 중공사형 이산화탄소 분리막 모듈을 사용하여 수소개질기 배가스로부터 이산화탄소 포집을 목적 으로 한 분리막 공정 최적화 연구를 진행하였다. 랩스케일의 소형 분리막 모듈을 사용하여 혼합기체를 대상으로 이산화탄소 순도 90% 및 회수율 90%을 달성하는 2단 공정 조건을 도출하였다. 막 면적이 정해진 모듈의 분리막 공정에서는 스테이지-컷, 주입부 및 투과부 압력에 따라서 포집 순도 및 회수율이 모두 다르게 나타나기 때문에 운전 조건에 대한 최적화가 필수적이 다. 본 연구에서는 다양한 운전 조건에서 1단 분리막에서 보이는 공정 포집 효율의 한계를 확인하고, 높은 순도와 회수율을 동시에 달성하기 위한 2단 회수 공정을 최적화하였다.
of hazardous risk factors, risk estimation and determination steps by reflecting the trend of overseas risk assessment. METHODS : In deriving, estimating and determining risk factors, comparing the procedures presented by the ILO with the domestic guidline to find out the differences in procedural. and, According to the domestic manual, after setting the criteria for determining a deterministic perspective, analyze the risk assessment data of a specific domestic company and three overseas risk assessment research data to analyze the differences in methodology domestic and abroad. RESULTS : Within the country, there is a possibility that a deterministic view may be applied to all stages of procedure, and certain corporate data to the risk estimation and determination stage. In the case of overseas, the trend of applying deterministic perspectives to the risk determination stage was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS : Present the need for a standard model for improving deterministic methods in the other two stages, excluding risk determination in the domestic evaluation procedure.
algorithms for deriving and analyzing retroreflectivity influence factors through regression analysis. METHODS : An experimental road lane was created to examine the trends of retroreflectivity and LiDAR intensity values, and a controlled indoor experiment was conducted to identify influencing factors. The optimal algorithm was developed by regression analysis of the experimental data. RESULTS : The significance probability (P-value) through SPSS linear regression analysis was 0.000 for measured height, 0.001 for perpendicular angle, 0.157 for vertical angle, and 0.000 for LiDAR intensity, indicating that measured height, vertical angle, and LiDAR intensity are significant factors because the significance probability is less than 0.05, and vertical angle is not significant. The NNR regression model performed the best, so the measurement data with height (1.2m, 2m, 2.2m) and vertical angle (11.3°, 12.3°, 13.5°) were analyzed to derive the optimal LiDAR Intensity measurement height and vertical angle. CONCLUSIONS : For each LiDAR measurement height and vertical angle, the highest correlation between LiDAR Intensity and retroreflectivity was found at a measurement height of 1.2 meters and a vertical angle of 12.3°, where the model learning accuracy (R2) was the highest.
In this study, a prefabricated buckling brace (PF-BRB) was proposed, and a test specimen was manufactured based on the design formula for the initial shape and structural performance tests were performed. As a result of the experiment, all standard performance requirements presented by KDS 41 17 00 and MOE 2021 were satisfied before and after replacement of the reinforcement module, and no fracture of the joint module occurred. As a result of the incremental load test, the physical properties showed a significant difference in the stiffness ratio after yielding under the compressive load of the envelope according to the experimental results. It is judged necessary to further analyze the physical properties according to the experimental results through finite element analysis in the future.