Application of the membrane process to wastewater treatment and reuse has been increasing due to water shortage, water pollution and an increase in water demand. Membrane fouling including biofouling should be controlled to extend its application. In this study, modulation of diffusible signal factor (DSF) system, the quorum sensing (QS) system that regulates EPS formation by microorganisms, was considered as a promising option to manage biofouling. Among many DSF compounds, cis -2-Decenoic acids (CDA) was selected. The experimental results showed that, as the CDA concentration increased, the density and number of stained cells decreased. The lowest density was observed when the CDA concentration of 300 nM was applied. The EPS on membrane surface decreased with increasing concentration of CDA. The CDA dosing also affected the EPS composition. At the 300 nM CDA dose, the total EPS reduced by up to 57% and the protein fraction by 35%. This study revealed the biofilm reduction effect of CDA under various conditions for MBR sludge. The application of CDA can be adapted to control biofouling in the MBR process.
Numerous chemical modifications on activated carbon such as acidic conditioning, thermal treatment and metal impregnation have been investigated to enhance adsorption capacities of micropollutants in water treatment plants. In this study, chemical modification including acidic, alkaline treatment, and iron-impregnation was evaluated for adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). For Fe-impregnation, three concentrations of ferric chloride solutions, i.e., 0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M, were used and ion-exchange (MIX) of iron and subsequent thermal treatment (MTH) were also applied. Surface properties of the modified carbons were analyzed by active surface area, pore volume, three-dimensional images, and chemical characteristics. The acidic and alkaline treatment changed the pore structures but yielded little improvement of adsorption capacities. As Fe concentrations were increased during impregnation, the active adsorption areas were decreased and the compositional ratios of Fe were increased. Adsorption capacities of modified ACs were evaluated using Langmuir isotherm. The MIX modification was not efficient to enhance 2,4-DCP adsorption and the MES treatment showed increases in adsorption capacities of 2,4-DCP, compared to the original activated carbon. These results implied a possibility of chemical impregnation modification for improvement of adsorption of 2,4-DCP, if a proper modification procedure is sought.
The point-of-use water dispenser systems are widely used because of convenience in handling and demand for high-quality drinking water. The application has been increased recently in the public places such as department stores, universities and the rest areas in express ways. Improvement of water qualities by the dispenser systems was compared with tap water in this study. The tap water is supplied to the dispenser as the influent of the dispenser system. The twelve dispensers in the public places were used. The five dispensers used reverse osmosis as the main filter and other dispensers used various filters such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and alumina filter. The water quality indicators for sanitation safety, i.e., turbidity and total coliforms, were evaluated. Other water qualities such as pH, residual chlorine, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and total cell counts were also analyzed. By the point-of-use water dispenser, the turbidity, residual chlorine and pH were decreased and the HPC and total cell counts were increased. The t-test results revealed that the HPC of the tap waters were not significantly different from the treated waters but the total cell counts of the two groups were significantly different. The low pH of the RO filter treatment was also significantly different from the tap waters. This study will contribute to understand the role of the point-of-use water dispenser in improving water quality and to identify key water quality for the proper maintenance of the dispenser systems.
In this study, the effectiveness of electrodialysis in removing inorganic arsenic from groundwater was investigated. To evaluate the feasibility of the electrodialysis, operating parameters such as treatment time, feed concentration, applied voltage and superficial velocity were experimentally investigated on arsenic removal. The higher conductivity removal and arsenic removal efficiency were obtained by increasing applied voltages and operation time. An increase of salinity concentrations in arsenic polluted groundwater exerted no effects on the arsenic separation ratios. Arsenic polluted waters were successfully treated with stack voltages of 1.8 ~ 2.4 V/cell-pair to approximately 93.4% of arsenic removal. Increase flow rate in diluate cell gave positive effect to removal rate. However, increase of superficial velocity in the concentrated cell exerted no effects on either the conductivity reduction or on the separation efficiency. Hopefully, this paper will provide direction in selecting appropriate operating conditions of electrodialysis for arsenic removal.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane has high resistance to chlorine, which is a great advantages in chemical cleaning to recover water flux during membrane processes in drinking water systems. A humic kaolin water with approximately 4 mg/L of DOC and 10 NTU of turbidity was prepared as a feed water. Coagulation pretreatment with or without settling was applied. The coagulation with settling showed the greatest water production. The reduced flux was effectively recovered by NaOCl cleaning, i.e., 21% recovery by 50 mg/L of NaOCl cleaning and 49% recovery by 500 mg/L NaOCl cleaning. The images of SEM and AFM analyses were corresponded to the water flux variation. However, when the floc was accumulated on the membrane surfaces, the efficiency of NaOCl cleaning was substantially limited. In addition, dynamic contact angle became greater after cleaning, which indicates changes in characteristics of fouling layer such as surface hydrophobicity. Proper cleaning technologies during enhanced backwash using NaOCl would expand application of PTFE membranes in drinking water systems.
Biofouling in brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) membranes still needs extensive research to understand cause and mechanism and to obtain methods for reduction of its impact on RO applications. Natural compounds with biofilm formation inhibitory properties are being investigated. Two compounds, vanillin and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), were selected due to their great potential on biofilm formation inhibition. Vanillin shows inhibition on quorum sensing mechanisms of biofilm formation. EGCG has potential to inactivate microbial activity. The two compounds were incorporated in typical polyamide reverse osmosis membranes and evaluated on flux behaviours and biofilm formation potential. The surface properties of membrane coated with vanillin were changed tremendously compared to those with EGCG. As a result, the flux was reduced substantially. The biofilm formation seems hindered with EGCG coated membranes compared to the virgin membranes. More research is needed to optimize coating methods applicable to RO membranes and to enhance biofouling reduction.
It is important to predict chlorine decay with different water purification processes and distribution pipeline materials, especially because chlorine decay is in direct relationship with the stability of water quality. The degree of chlorine decay may affect the water quality at the end of the pipeline: it may produce disinfection by-products or cause unpleasant odor and taste. Sand filtrate and dual media filtrate were used as influents in this study, and cast iron (CI), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and stainless steel (SS) were used as pipeline materials. The results were analyzed via chlorine decay models by comparing the experimental and model parameters. The models were then used to estimate rechlorination time and chlorine decay time. The results indicated that water quality (e.g. organic matter and alkalinity) and pipeline materials were important factors influencing bulk decay and sand filtrate exhibited greater chlorine decay than dual media filtrate. The two-component second-order model was more applicable than the first decay model, and it enabled the estimation of chlorine decay time. These results are expected to provide the basis for modeling chlorine decay of different water purification processes and pipeline materials.
도금산업은 국가 핵심역량 사업분야인 전기재료 및 전자 부품 산업등과 밀접한 관계를 가지고 있는 산업분야일 뿐만 아니라, 핵심 부품 및 소재의 기능적 특성과 부가가치를 향상시켜 가격을 결정하는 품질에 큰 영향을 미치는 기반 산업이지만 배출 폐수에는 중금속 이외에도 맹독성 물질인 시안화물과 주요 오염물질이 대량 포함되어 있어 주요 유해물질 배출 관리 대상 업종으로 분류되어 집중 관리되고 있는 실정이다. 이에 소규모 국내 도급업체는 공동 폐수처리장을 통해 폐수를 처리하고 있으나, 도금방법이나 폐수의 특성에 따라 분리 배출되어지지 않고 대부분 통합 배출되어짐으로 인해 처리공정이 복잡하고 처리시설이 방대해지며 많은 처리비용이 소요되고 있어 도급산업을 위축시키는 원인으로 지목되고 있다. 최근 이러한 문제의 해결을 통해 도금산업을 강화하고자 이온성 물질을 분리해 정제할 수 있는 전기투석 기술을 이용한 다양한 연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 전기투석 장치를 이용하여 도금폐수내 구리와 니켈의 제거성능을 평가하였다. 전기투석장치의 이온교환막은 Astom사의 NEOSEPTA를 이용하였고 총 5쌍의 음이온 교환막과 양이온 교환막으로 구성된 스택을 제작하였다. NaCl을 이용하여 TDS 4,000mg/L, 니켈과 구리의 농도를 각각 20mg/L로 제조한 합성폐수를 이용하여 실험한 결과, 한계전류 12v와 25분의 체류시간 조건에서 구리와 니켈은 모두 99%이상 제거되었다. 또한 동일조건에서 유량이 증가할수록 구리와 니켈의 제거효율도 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 이온교환막의 변경에 따른 처리성능을 평가한 결과, 이온교환막의 종류에 따라 처리성능에 차이를 나타내어 추가적인 연구가 필요한 것으로 판단된다.
근래 해수담수화나 하수재이용에서 정삼투와 역삼투 공정을 결합한 FO-RO 공정에 대한 연구가 많이 이루어지고 있다. 역삼투 공정은 기본적으로 까다로운 전처리를 거쳐야하는 경우가 많은데 이를 정삼투 공정으로 대체하는 것이 기본적인 개념이다. 정삼투 공정은 멤브레인은 사이에 두고 염도차가 있는 두 용액을 순환시켜주면 두 용액 사이의 삼투압 차이에 의해 염도가 높은 쪽으로 물이 이동하는 현상을 이용한다. 정삼투 공정의 장점은 역삼투 공정과는 다르게 자연적인 삼투압을 이용하기 때문에 가압이 할 필요가 없다. 그렇기에 역삼투 공정의 운전비용의 많은 부분을 차지하는 전력비를 감소시킬 수 있다. 또한 후단의 역삼투 공정의 부하를 감소시켜주는 효과도 있다. 하지만 역삼투 공정과 마찬가지로 정삼투 공정에서도 농축수가 발생하게 되고, 하수가 농축되기 때문에 적절한 처리 없이 배출하지 못하는 단점이 있다. 본 연구는 실험실 규모의 정삼투 장치를 이용하여 회수율 50%를 기준으로 하수 농축수를 생산하고 수질 분석과 유기물 특성분석을 통해 농축수의 생물학적 처리가 가능한지 알아보았다. COD 22.1 mg/L, BOD 9.7 mg/L 수준의 K시 WWTP 2차 침전지 유출수를 원수로 사용하였고, 농축된 후에는 COD 38.6 mg/L, BOD 7.9 mg/L 의 값을 보였다. 이는 2차 침전지 방류수가 농축되면서 난분해성 유기물이 증가하였다는 것을 보여준다. 또한 FEEM을 이용하여 유기물의 intensity를 측정한 결과 aromatic protein-like, fulvic 과 humic acid-like의 intensity가 크게 증가하였다. 이상의 결과로 정삼투 농축수의 생물학적 처리를 위해서는 난분해성 유기물의 분해가 필요할 것이라고 생각된다.