Recently, the advancement of information and communication technology(ICT) is expanding the connectivity through Internet of Things(IoT), and the media of connection is also expanding from wire/cable transmission to broadband wireless communication, which has significantly improved mobility. This hyperconnectivity has become a key element of the fourth industrial revolution, whereas the supervisory control network of purification plants in korea is operated as a communication network separated from the outside, thereby lagging in terms of connectivity. This is considered the best way to ensure security, and thus there is hardly any consideration of establishing alternatives to operate an efficient and stable communication network. Moreover, security for management of a commercialized communication network and network management solution may be accompanied by immense costs, making it more difficult to make new attempts. Therefore, to improve the conditions for the current supervisory control network of purification plants, this study developed a industrial security L2 switch that supports modbus TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) communication and encryption function of the transmission section. As a result, the communication security performance improved significantly, and the cost for implementing the network management system using Historical Trend and information of HMI(Human Machine Interface) could be reduced by approximately KRW 200 million. The results of this study may be applied to systems for gas, electricity and social safety nets that are infrastructure communication networks that are similar to purification plants.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate vulnerability of drought in small island areas. Vulnerability assessment factors of drought were selected by applying the factor analysis. Ninety Eup/Myon areas in small island were evaluated to vulnerability of drought by entropy method adapting objective weights. Vulnerability consisted of climate exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. A total of 22 indicators were used to evaluate and analyze vulnerability of drought in small island areas. The results of entropy method showed that winter rainfall, no rainfall days, agricultural population rate, cultivation area rate, water supply rate and groundwater capacity have a significant impact on drought assessment. The overall assessment of vulnerability indicated that Seodo-myeon Ganghwa-gun, Seolcheon-myeon Namhae-gun and Samsan-myeon Ganghwa-gun were the most vulnerable to drought. Especially Ganghwa-gun should be considered policy priority to establish drought measures in the future, because it has a high vulnerability of drought.
This research proposes an optimal flushing operation technique in an effort to prevent secondary water pollutions and accidents in aged pipes, and to improve the cleaning effect of unidirectional flushing. Water flow directions were analyzed using EPANET 2.0, while flushing and air scouring experiments in forward and reverse directions were performed in the field. In 42 experiments, average residual chlorine concentration and turbidity were improved after cleaning compared to before cleaning. It was found that even when the same cleaning method was used, further improvement of cleaning effect was possible by applying air injection and reverse direction cleaning techniques. By means of one-way ANOVA(Analysis of variance), it was also possible to statistically verify the need of actively utilizing air injection and reverse direction cleaning. Based on correlation between turbidity and TSS, the total amount of suspended solids removal was estimated for 874 flushing operations and 194 air scouring operations. The result showed that air scouring used more discharge water than flushing by an average of 4.9 m3 yet with larger amounts of suspended solids removal by an average of 145.9 g. The result of analysis on turbidity values from 887 flushing operations showed low cleaning effect of unidirectional flushing for the pipes with diameters over 300 mm. In addition, the turbidity values measured during cleaning showed an increasing tendency as pipe age increased. The methodology and results of this research are expected to contribute to the efficient maintenance and improvement of water quality in water distribution networks. Follow-up research involving the measurement of water quality at regular time intervals during cleaning would allow a more accurate comparison of discharge water quality characteristics and cleaning effects between different cleaning methods. To this end, it is considered necessary to develop a standardized manual that can be used in the field and to provide relevant trainings.
In this study, the fate and removal of 15 pharmaceuticals (including stimulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, etc.) in unit processes of a sewage treatment plant (STP) were investigated. Mass loads of pharmaceuticals were 2,598 g/d in the influent, 2,745 g/d in the primary effluent, 143 g/d in the secondary effluent, and 134 g/d in the effluent. The mass loads were reduced by 95% in the biological treatment process, but total phosphorous treatment did not show a significant effect on the removal of most pharmaceuticals. Also, mass balance analysis was performed to evaluate removal characteristics of pharmaceuticals in the biological treatment process. Acetaminophen, caffeine, acetylsalicylic acid, cefradine, and naproxen were efficiently removed in the biological treatment process mainly due to biodegradation. Removal efficiencies of gemfibrozil, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were not high, but their removal was related to sorption onto sludge. This study provides useful information on understanding removal characteristics of pharmaceuticals in unit processes in the STP.
Chlorination and UV illumination are being widely applied to inactivate a number of pathogenic microbials in the environment. Here, we evaluated the inactivation efficiency of individual and combined treatments of chlorination and UV under various aqueous conditions. UV dosage was required higher in waste water than in phosphate buffer to achieve the similar disinfecting efficiency. Free chlorine generated by electrolysis of waste water was abundant enough to inactivate microbials. Based on these, hybrid system composed of sequential treatment of electrolysis-mediated chlorination and UV treatment was developed under waste water conditions. Compared to individual treatments, hybrid system inactivated bacteria (i.e., E. coli and S. typhimurium) and viruses (i.e., MS-2 bacteriophage, rotavirus, and norovirus) more efficiently. The hybrid system also mitigated the photo re-pair of UV-driven DNA damages of target bacteria. The combined results suggested the hybrid system would achieve high inactivation efficiency and safety on various pathogenic microbials in wastewater.
In order to determine the location of average concentration and distribution status of dissolved oxygen in the rectangular aeration tank of the sewage treatment plant was analyzed and the difference of dissolved oxygen concentration was remarkable at each location. Compared with the computational fluid dynamics analysis, it was found that the results were consistent with the measurement results by showing the difference of dissolved oxygen concentration between the locations. Based on the measured data, the representative location of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank was selected by using statistical analysis method and the representative location was expressed in three-dimensional coordinates(LWH : 25%, 50%, 33%) from flow direction and left wall. Also the difference between the dissolved oxygen concentration at the actual measurement location and the average concentration value of the entire aeration tank was founded, and the equations for calibrating the automatic measurement data considering the actual measurement location were calculated.
The point-of-use water dispenser systems are widely used because of convenience in handling and demand for high-quality drinking water. The application has been increased recently in the public places such as department stores, universities and the rest areas in express ways. Improvement of water qualities by the dispenser systems was compared with tap water in this study. The tap water is supplied to the dispenser as the influent of the dispenser system. The twelve dispensers in the public places were used. The five dispensers used reverse osmosis as the main filter and other dispensers used various filters such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and alumina filter. The water quality indicators for sanitation safety, i.e., turbidity and total coliforms, were evaluated. Other water qualities such as pH, residual chlorine, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and total cell counts were also analyzed. By the point-of-use water dispenser, the turbidity, residual chlorine and pH were decreased and the HPC and total cell counts were increased. The t-test results revealed that the HPC of the tap waters were not significantly different from the treated waters but the total cell counts of the two groups were significantly different. The low pH of the RO filter treatment was also significantly different from the tap waters. This study will contribute to understand the role of the point-of-use water dispenser in improving water quality and to identify key water quality for the proper maintenance of the dispenser systems.