This study describes a reasonable planning method for water meter replacement which can minimize the metering under-registration for an increasement of revenue water. The increment analysis of real water usage was used to establish a replacement plan. The meter replacement database collected from K City was used as the basis of this analysis. The database included 964 connections of domestic and non-domestic consumers that had their meter replaced by aging at 2011.The result showed that the corelation between unregistered water volume and water meter age was lower than commonly expected where the current criteria of replacement is only water meter age(8 years) excluding the meters older than 13 years. And in the analysis result of water usage for 8 years, the total amount and increment of water usage had a significant effect on unregistered water volume. However the relation was different tendency as a total volume and slope of increment. In case of total water volume was larger than 10,000 , larger than 7,000 and increment of 0.0 ~ -0.3, larger than 6,000 and increment more than -0.3 were analysed to need a replacement because of metering under-registration.
As sewer flooding frequents due to localized and concentrated stormwater and increased non-permeable surface area after urbanization, building cities with sound water recycle and accordingly efficient management of rainwater is demanded. To do this, the existing sewage (including rainwater) fee imposition system should be philosophically evaluated. This study presents problematic issues of the existing domestic sewage fee imposition system considering the principle of sharing costs on the service of sewage and rainwater collection and treatment. Four methods to improve the existing sewage fee imposition system are suggested: 1) imposing stormwater fee according to Polluter Pays Principle, 2) clarification of the share of public sector, 3) reducing or exempting the sewerage fee for inhabitants reducing urban runoff by constructing their own rainwater management facilities, 4) imposing charge for discharging rainwater to sewers due to new development action. Short, mid, or long term planning for rainwater management is recommended considering the situation of each municipality.
As sewerage systems have obsolete, as quality and service level standards increase, and as rain characteristics change, the sewerage utility authorities are challenged to develop cost recovery strategies that assure financial sustainability. In this study, we conducted scenario analysis to examine the effect of three alternatives of partial or full sewerage cost recovery in Seoul during 2014-30 periods. It turned out that the alternative 1 is optimal and recommended. According to alternative 1, we had better increase annually sewerage fee by 14.8% until 2020 and thereafter apply only the inflation rate in setting sewerage fee. It would gradually decrease the deficit after 2019. The accumulated deficit of 13 billion Won in 2030 was estimated.We expect that this kind of analysis may provide useful informations to help sewage utility staffs, decision makers, and regulatory authorities understand, develop and implement ultimate full cost recovery strategy for many municipalities.
The pickling brine generated from the salting process of kimchi production is difficult to treat biologically due to very high content of salt. When pickling brine is treated and discharged, it cannot satisfy the criteria for effluent water quality in clean areas, while resources such as the salt to be recycled and the industrial water are wasted. However, sterilization by ozone, UV and photocatalyst is expensive installation costs and operating costs when considering the small kimchi manufacturers. Therefore there is a need to develop economical process. The study was conducted on the sterilization efficiency of the pickling brine using electrochemical processing. The electrochemical treatment of organic matters has advantages over conventional methods such as active carbon absorption process, chemical oxidation, and biological treatment because the response speed is faster and it does not require expensive, harmful oxidizing agents. This study were performed to examine the possibility of electrochemical treatment for the efficient processing of pickling brine and evaluated the performance of residual chlorine for the microbial sterilization.
This study was evaluated the applicability of the membrane filtration process (Micro Filtration (MF), nanofiltration membranes (NF), reverse osmosis (RO)) on the major radioactive substances, iodine (I-) and cesium (Cs+) using membranes produced in Korea and domestic raw water. Iodine (I-) or cesium (Cs+) in the microfiltration membrane (MF) process could not be expected removal efficiency by eliminating marginally at the combined state with colloidal and turbidity material. At the domestic raw water (lake water, turbidity 1.2 NTU, DOC 1.3 mg/L) conditions, nanofiltration membrane (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) showed a high removal rate of about 88 ~ 99% for iodine (I-) and cesium (Cs+) and likely to be an alternative process for the removal of radioactive material.
This study investigates the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on growth of S. dimorphus. NaHCO3 concentration was varied from 0 to 2 g-C/L. As a result, the increase in concentration of NaHCO3 up to 1.5 g-C/L increased dry weight of algae. The highest specific growth rate of S. dimorphus was 0.36 day-1 which was obtained at concentration of 0.5 g-C/L NaHCO3. pH showed a large variation range at the concentrations lower than 0.5 g-C/L NaHCO3 whereas inorganic carbon, nitrate and phosphorus removal rates were almost same at the concentrations higher than 0.5 g-C/L NaHCO3 (0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2 g-C/L NaHCO3). Their average inorganic carbon, nitrate and phosphorus removal rate were 70 mg-C/L/d, 11.3 mg-N/L/d, and 1.6 mg-P/L/d, respectively. Thus, NaHCO3 didn’t effect on inorganic carbon, nitrate and phosphorus removal rate of S. dimorphus.
The paper is to estimate willingness-to-pay (WTP) for tap water quality improvement in Busan, using parametric approach in contingent valuation method(CVM). For parametric approach linear logit model and log logit model are employed in double-bounded dichotomous choice format of CVM. For the reliability and the validity of contingent valuation method a survey was conducted for 665 respondents, who were sampled by stratified random sampling method, by personal interview method. The result of mean WTP for the tap water quality improvement in Busan was estimated to be 3,687 won and 3,660 won per month per household, while median WTP being 1,884 won and 1,892 won per month per household, respectively by linear logit model and log logit model. Provided that our sample is broadly representative of the Busan’s population, an estimate of the annual aggregated benefit of residential water improvement for all Busan households is approximately 29.7 billion won to 29.8 billion won based on median WTP.
VFAs like acetate are the major soluble metabolites of food waste leachates after digested. Therefore this study investigates the effect of acetate on growth rate and nutrient removal efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris to treat digested food waste leachates. The initial acetate concentration varied from 0 to 20 mM. As a result, Chlorella vulgaris growth rate was increased as high as the concentrations ranged from 0 to 20 mM. The same trend was observed with NH4-N and PO4-P consumption. The highest growth rate and the highest NH4-N, PO4-P removal rate were observed at acetate concentration of 20 mM. The microalgae growth rate and NH4-N, PO4-P removal rates were 1.5, 1.8, 2.3 times higher than the condition without acetate.
Sediment basin that is typical facility installed for development business to prevent soil erosion has low removal efficiency and therefore, it causes complaints from the residents and has a bad effect on ecosystem.Thus there is a limit to control soil erosion using the existing design methods of sediment basin, so the purposes of this study is providing suitable design factors for sediment basin with regarding soil characteristic of development areas and analysing sedimentation characteristic by inflow concentration changes.The results, for analyzing the sedimentation characteristic by soil concentrations within approximately 2,000 ~ 20,000 mg/L of initial SS concentration, indicated similar sedimentation trends for same soil in the supernatant regardless of initial concentrations. However, for different soil characteristic (percent finer), there are different results in sedimentation rate and concentrations of the supernatant.Thus it is recommended that sediment basin to prevent soil erosion during construction should be designed based on retention time derived from soil sedimentation experiments regardless of inlet concentration. In addition, installing the soil erosion prevention facility at the back to satisfy effluent water quality should be considered to minimize soil erosion effectively.
Tuberculation and slime accumulated in water mains play an important role in modifying water quality of drinking water. Therefore, in this study, it was investigated that what materials were accumulated, and what components were included in the tuberculation and slime of water mains. The Various tuberculation and slime sample were collected from the 12 water mains to analyze their physical and chemical properties and crystal structure. As a analysis method, VSS(Volatile suspended solid), SEM(scanning electron microscope), EDS(Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscope), ICP(Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) and XRD(X-Ray Diffractomete) were used. The results of analysis on the samples, the representative materials were verified such as iron corrosion products, the fine sand particles generated during backwash, fine particles of activated carbon, aluminum used in coagulation process, and manganese included in raw water.
A coagulation-flocculation (CF) process using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant was employed to treat highly suspended solids in tunnel wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design was applied to evaluate the effects of three factors (coagulant dosage, pH and temperature) on total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiency as well as to identify optimal values of those factors to maximize removal of TSS. Optimal conditions of coagulant dosage and pH for maximum TSS removal changed depending on the temperature (4 ~ 24°C). As temperature increased, the amount of coagulant dosage and pH level decreased for maximum TSS removal efficiency during the CF process. Proper adjustment of optimal pH and coagulant dosage to accommodate temperature fluctuations can improve TSS removal performance of the CF process.
Researcher of this study improved conventional circle secondary settling basin, through the way such as extend of inlet pipe length, introduction of device for inducting uniforming of flow, keeping of height of sludge interface. Also, we compared conventional circle settling basin to improved circle settling basin the water treatment efficiency. Result of research, when SVI is average 117, improvement rate of SS and BOD were 51.0%, 37.0% approximately compared to conventional settling basin. And when SVI is average 178, improvement rate of SS and BOD were 22.7%, 36.0% approximately. Also when SVI is average 196, improvement rate of SS and BOD were 24.7%, 30.3% approximately. When it’s winter, improvement rate of SS, BOD, COD, TN and TP were 20.6%, 17.9%, 13.9%, 13.5%, 12.4% approximately. Therefore, we can be the judge, this improved settling basin can be used as the final settling basin in the waste water treatment plant.