Recently, interest in the development of alternative water resources has been increasing rapidly due to environmental pollution and depletion of water resources. In particular, seawater desalination has been attracting the most attention as alternative water resources. As seawater desalination consumes a large amount of energy due to high operating pressure, many researches have been conducted to improve energy efficiency such as energy recovery device (ERD). Consequently, this study aims to compare the energy efficiency of RO process according to ERD of isobaric type which is applied in scientific control pilot plant process of each 100 m3/day scale based on actual RO product water. As a result, it was confirmed that efficiency, mixing rate, and permeate conductivity were different depending on the size of the apparatus even though the same principle of the ERD was applied. It is believed that this is caused by the difference in cross-sectional area of the contacted portion for pressure transfer inside the ERD. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the optimum conditions what is applicable to the actual process considering the correlation with other factors as well as the factors obtained from the previous experiments.
As the sequencing batch reactor process is a time-oriented system, it has advantages of the flexibility in operation for the biological nutrient removal. Because the sequencing batch reactor is operated in a batch system, respiration rate is more sensitive and obvious than in a continuous system. The variation of respiration rate in the process well represented the characteristics of biological reactions, especially nitrification. The respiration rate dropped rapidly and greatly with the completion of nitrification, and the maximum respiration rate of nitrification showed the activity of nitrifiers. This study suggested a strategy to control the aeration of the sequencing batch reactor based on respirometry. Aeration time of the optimal aerobic period required for nitrification was daily adjusted according to the dynamics of respiration rate. The aeration time was mainly correlated with influent nitrogen loadings. The anoxic period was extended through aeration control facilitating a longer endogenous denitrification reaction time. By respirometric aeration control in the sequencing batch reactor, energy saving and process performance improvement could be achieved.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the removal characteristics of total nitrogen, the influence factor of denitrification and the optimum operating condition in the pigment wastewater treatment using PAC-A/O process. The operating conditions of PAC-A/O process were mean BOD volumetric loading 0.86 kgBOD/m3/day, mean F/M ratio 0.072∼0.13 kgBOD/kgMLVSS/day and mean C/N ratio 3.47, respectively. The conditions of anoxic process in the field plant test were mean pH 8.3∼8.7 and mean temperature 34.1~44.0℃. The ORP bending point knee was eventually appeared in the ORP -107 mV and NO3 --N removal efficiency was increased according to the ORP decrease. In the ORP -107 mV below condition, the removal efficiency of T-N and NO3 --N was 92.3∼95.0% and 98.5∼99.7%. Denitrification rate was calculated to be 1.581∼1.791 mg NO3 --N/gMLSS/hr. The experimental results showed that the ORP control in the PAC-A/O process could be an effective method for treatment of pigment wastewater.
The stability of liquid ferrate(Ⅵ) produced by an innovative method was confirmed and the degradation characteristics of cyclic compounds(Benzene, Aniline, Toluene, 1,4-Dioxane) by liquid ferrate(Ⅵ) were investigated under the same reaction conditions. When it was compared with the ferrate manufactured by the wet oxidation method, the liquid ferrate was more stable. And the stability of liquid ferrate was tested at the storage temperature. As a result, only 17.7% of liquid ferrate(Ⅵ) has decomposed at the storage temperature(4˚C) for 28 days. Among the cyclic compounds, the aniline was rapidly degraded compare to other cyclic compounds, which seems to be due to the electron-donating ability of the substituent, -NH2 group. Especially, when 1,4-dioxane was compared with benzene, the decomposition rate of 1,4-dioxane was lower than that of benzene, suggesting that oxygen atoms hinder the electrophilic reaction. Among 4 cyclic compounds, it was observed that aniline has the highest rate constant than those of other cyclic compounds.
This study develops a model to estimate the economic life of the large-diameter water supply pipeline in Korea by supplementing existing methods used to perform similar calculations. To evaluate the developed methodology, the model was applied to the actual target area with the conveyance pipe in P waterworks. The application yielded an economic life computation of 39.7 years, considering the cost of damages, maintenance, and renewal of the pipeline. Based on a sensitivity analysis of the derived results, the most important factor influencing the economic life expectancy was the predicted failure rate. The methodology for estimating the economic life of the water supply pipeline proposed in this study is one of the core processes of basic waterworks facility management planning. Therefore, the methods and results proposed in this study may be applied to asset management planning for water service providers.
This study investigated phosphorus removal from secondary treated effluent using coagulation-membrane separation hybrid treatment to satisfy strict regulation in wastewater treatment. The membrane separation process was used to remove suspended phosphorus particles after coagulation/settlement. Membrane separation with 0.2 μm pore size of micro filtration membrane could reduce phosphorus concentration to 0.02 mg P/L after coagulation with 1 mg Al/L dose of polyaluminum chloride (PACl). Regardless of coagulant, the residual concentration of phosphorus decreased as the dose increased from 1.5 to 3.5 mg Al/L, while the target concentration of 0.05 mg P/L or less was achieved at 2.5 mg Al/L for the aluminum sulfate (Alum) and 3.5 mg Al/L for PACl. Moreover, alum showed better membrane flux as make bigger particles than PACl. Alum showed a 40% of flux decrease at 2.5 mg Al/L dose, while PACl indicated a 50% decrease of membrane flux even with a higher dose of 3.5 mg Al/L. Thus, alum was more effective coagulant than PACl considering phosphorus removal and membrane flux as well as its dose. Consequently, the coagulation-membrane separation hybrid treatment could be mitigate regulation on phosphorus removal as unsettleable phosphorus particles were effectively removed by membrane after coagulation.
It is necessary to develop a mobile water production system in order to provide stable water supply in case of disasters such as floods or earthquakes. In this study, we developed a modular mobile water production system capable of producing water for various uses such as domestic water and drinking water while improving applicability in various raw water sources. The water production system consists of three stages of filtration (sand filtration - activated carbon filtration - pressure filtration) to produce domestic water and an additional reverse osmosis process to produce drinking water. In laboratory and field experiments, the domestic water production system showed excellent treatment efficiency for particulate matter, but showed limitations in the treatment of dissolved substances such as dissolved organic matter. In addition, ultraviolet irradiation was considered as additional disinfection step, because it does not form precipitates of manganese oxides after disinfection. Reverse osmosis process was added to increase the removal efficiency of dissolved substances and the treated water satisfied drinking water quality standards. Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic matter showed that the fulvic acid-like substances in raw water was successfully removed in the reverse osmosis process. The mobile water production system developed in this study is expected to be used not only in water supply in case of disaster, but also widely used in islands and rural area.