The water distribution system should be invariably operated on continuous pattern for 24 hours a day. Occasionally, it is not practically possible to operate for 24 hours due to water shortage or financial constraints. Therefore an intermittent water supply is unavoidable in water shortage area and developing countries.But the intermittent water supply can introduce large pressure forces and rapid fluid accelerations into a water supply network. These disturbances may result in new pipe failure, leakage and secondary contamination.This paper proposed an improvement methodology to prevent the disturbances by intermittent water supply. For the study, the hydraulic variation of intermittent flow in water distribution system was measured and analyzed in the field by comparing with simulation of hydraulic model. Installations of control valves such as, pressure reducing and sustaining and air valves were employed for pressure and flow control. The effectiveness of the methods are presented by comparing hydraulic conditions before and after introducing the proposed solutions.
A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) was applied to treat a primary sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. In this experiment, acidogenic reaction was promoted by operating the ABR with short hydraulic retention time (HRT) to produce sufficient volatile fatty acids (VFA) instead of production of methane. The performance of ABR on the VFA production and total solids reduction was observed with different operating conditions with 2, 4, 6, and 8 days of HRT. Corresponding organic loading rates were 6.7, 3.4, 2.2, and 1.6 kgCODcr /m3·day. As HRT increased the removal rate of TCOD was also increased (82.5, 84.2, 96.9, and 95.9 % in average for HRT of 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively) because the settlement of solids was enhanced in the baffle by the decrease of upflow velocity. At HRT of 2 days the average concentration of VFA in the effluent was measured at 1,306±552 mgCOD/L corresponding to 107 % increment as compared to the VFA concentration in the influent. However, as HRT increased VFA concentraiotn was decreased to 143±552 mgCOD/L at HRT of 8 days. The reduction rates of total solids were 12.2, 26.5, 24.8, and 43.0 % for HRT of 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. As HRT increased the hydrolysis of organic particulate matters in the reactor was enhanced due to the increasing of solids retention time in the baffle zone with low upflow velocity in long HRT condition. Consequently, we found that a primary sludge became a good source of VFA production by the application of ABR process with HRT less than 4 days and the 12-26 % of total solids reduction was expected at these conditions.
In order to investigate the effective pretreatment methods in WAS(=waste activated sludge) solubilization, the values of SCOD yield per unit SS (SCOD/gSS.hr) were compared. After the hydrodynamic cavitation with pH of 12.5, SCOD increased to 7800 mg/L, SS decreased to 45 % and the solubilization rate was 29 %. Combination of alkality (pH 12.5) and the cavitation seems to be the optimal condition for sludge solubilization. After the cavitational pretreatment, efficiencies of anaerobic digestion of the unfiltered sludge(the control), raw sludge and pretreated sludge were evaluated with BMP(=biochemical methane potential) tests.For evaluation of the biodegradability characteristics of pretreated sewage sludge, the methane production has been measured for 6 months. The methane production of pretreated sludge increased 1.4 times than that of untreated sludge. The result indicates that the cavitationally pretreated sludge was a better biodegradability substrate in anaerobic condition compared to raw sludge. It is obvious that cavitational pretreatment could enhance not only solubilization but also biodegradability of WAS. In conclusion, cavitational pretreatment of WAS to convert the particulate into soluble portion was shown to be effective in enhancing the digestibility of the WAS.
In this study, current sewer infiltration/Inflow(I/I) computation and application method was examined about improvement and adequacy relating to the main issues raised by the field for practitioners. The results of review about infiltration calculation method were considered to be in need of improvement at‘standards of minimum sewage calculation’. Furthermore, the results of review about I/I application method were considered to be in need of improvement at‘standards of seasonal infiltration application’and‘the relative decrease in the Annual evaluation standards’. In addition, annual I/I analysis at JC County for the four years(2009 ～ 2012) in respect of operation flow and rainfall data was conducted. The result of annual infiltration analysis, compared average daily sewage generated average infiltration rate was found in 21.95 %, infiltration by unit was found in 0.31 m3/day/cm/km and 0.12 m3/day/day, respectively. The result of annual inflow analysis, average rainfall - Inflow equations was found y = 5.499x(R2 0.793), and the average Inflow quantity by sewer extension was predicted to 0.66 m3/mm-km.
Nanotechnology has become one of the fastest developing technologies and recently applied to a variety of industries. Thus, increasing number of nano materials including various nanoparticles would be discharged into wastewater and consequently entering a biological wastewater treatment process. However, the impact of the nano particles on biological wastewater treatment has not been estimated intensively. In this research, we investigated the effect of silica nanoparticle on the oxygen uptake rates (OURs) of activated sludge used in a conventional wastewater treatment process. The inhibition (%) values were estimated from the results of OURs experiments for the silica nanoparticles with various sizes of 10-15, 45-50, and 70-100 nm and concentrations of 50, 250, and 500 ppm. As results, the inhibition value was increased as the size of silica nano particles decreased and the injected concentration increased. The maximum inhibition value was investigated as 37.4 % for the silica nanoparticles with the size of 45-50 nm and concentration of 50 ppm. Additionally, the effect of size and concentration on the inhibition should be considered cautiously in case that the aggregation of particles occurred seriously so that the size of individual particles was increased in aquatic solution.
Food waste leachate (FWL) is a serious pollutant waste coming from the food waste recycling facilities in Korea. FWL has a high organic matter content and high COD to nitrogen (COD/N) ratio, which can disturb efficient methane production in the anaerobic digestion of FWL. In the present study a microalga, Clorella vulgaris (C.V), was used as co-substrate for the FWL anaerobic digestion in order to supply nutrients, decrease the COD/N ratio and increase its methane yield. Different co-digestion mixtures (COD/N ratios) were studied by using biochemical methane potential test and modified Gompertz equation for kinetic study. Mixed substrate of FWL and C. vulgaris in the co-digestion clearly showed more the biomethane yield than the sole substrates. The maximum methane production, 827.7 mL-CH4/g-VS added, was obtained for COD/N ratio of 24/1, whereas the highest improvement of methane yield was found for COD/N ratio of 15/1.
Study on effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristic and removal efficiency is required, because EfOM is important in regard to the stability of effluents reuse, quality issues of artificial recharge and water conservation of aqueous system. UV technology is widely used in wastewater treatment. Many reports have been conducted on microbial disinfection and micro pollutant reduction with UV treatment. However, the study on EfOM with UV has limited because low/medium pressure UV lamp is not sufficient to affect refractory organics. The high intensity of pulsed UV would mineralize EfOM itself as well as change the characteristics of EfOM. Chlorine demand and DBPs formation is affected on the changed amounts and properties of EfOM. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect on EfOM, chlorine residual, and chlorinated DBPs formation with low pressure and pulsed UV treatment. The removal of organic matter through low pressure UV treatment is insignificant effect. Pulsed UV treatment effectively removes/transforms EfOM. As a result, the chlorine consumption is changed and chlorine DBPs formation is decreased. However, excessive UV treatment caused problems of increasing chlorine consumption and generating unknown by-products.
One-dimensional flux theory (1DFT) is conventionally used for design of secondary clarifier of wastewater treatment plant. However, the 1DFT cannot describe turbulence, density current, shape parameters of the clarifier. In this study, we optimized the configurations of influent guide baffle and effluent baffle through the simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and its verification by particle image velocity (PIV) test. The energy dissipating inlet (EDI) without influent guide baffle (0°) showed the best efficiency for minimizing downward velocity under the center well of the clarifier. The lowest velocity distribution around the effluent weir region could be obtained with the McKinney baffle (EB-2). The performances of the influent and effluent baffles were clearly verified by PIV test results.
The aim of this study is to investigate the sorption/ion exchange of radioactive nuclides such as Cs+ and Sr2+ by synthetic Na-micas. In order to prepare Na-micas, two natural micas (phlogopite and biotite) were used as precursor materials. XRD, SEM, and EDS analyses were used to examine material characterization of synthetic Na-micas. Analyses of materials revealed that Na-micas were successfully obtained from natrual micas by K removal treatment. On the other hand, single solute (Cs or Sr) and bi-solute (Cs/Sr) sorption experiments were carried out to determine sorption capacity of Na-micas for Cs and Sr under different pH and ionic strength conditions. Uptake of Cs and Sr by micas in bi-solute system was lower than in single-solute system. Additionally, Langmuir and Langmuir competitive models were applied to describe sorption isotherm of Na-micas. bi-solute system was well described by Langmuir competitive models. For the results obtained in this study, Na-micas could be promising sorbents to treat multi-radioactive species from water and groundwater.
Three water treatment plants(WTPs) in Jeju island whose source water have different characteristics from those of the mainland of Korea were investigated. Coefficients of bulk water decay(kb ) of free chlorine at 5 ଌ for ES, GJ, NW WTPs were -0.003 hr -1, -0.002 hr -1 and −0.001 hr -1 respectively based on bottle tests.To simulate the free chlorine variations in the distribution system using EPANET, ES WTP was chosen. Free chlorine concentrations of several sites were less than the drinking water quality standards(i.e., 0.1 mg/L); E5(0.03 mg/L), E6(0.02 mg/L), W21(0.02 mg/L) and W25(0.03 mg/L). To maintain more than 0.1 mg/L of free chlorine in the distribution system, at least 1.9 mg/L of chlorine was needed at the WTP, which suggested rechlorination was needed to supply palatable tap water to customers.Two sites, one that diverged into E5 and E6 in the east-line and another located before E21 in the west-line were selected for the appropriate rechlorination locations. The recommended rechlorination dosages were 0.42 mg/L for the east and 0.27 mg/L for the west. The simulated results indicated that the free chlorine could be reduced to 0.4 mg/L at the WTP with rechlorination, and taps with excessive free chlorine could be more stabilized(i.e., 0.1 ~0.4 mg/L).
In this study, the evaluation criteria of performance and applicability is developed to rank the combinatorial technologies for SWG (Smart Water Grid) system using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. Security, safety, solution, suitability and sustainability which are goals of SWG technology, are used as upper level hierarchy elements. And three detailed elements for each upper level hierarchy are adopted as the lower level hierarchy. The weighted value which represents the importance of each element, could be determined through questionnaires accomplished by groups of specialists who are engaged in relevant waster industry and research area. To assess the accuracy of the evaluation criteria developed in this study, a simulation on four decision alternatives for smart water grid was carried out as an evaluation. Consequently which showed 90 % of accuracy.
Decentralized water supply systems, treating the water in users’vicinity, cutting down the distribution system, utilizing the alternative water resources(rainwater harvesting, water reclamation and reuse and so on.) and saving energy and other resources, could be categorized into POU(Point-Of-Use), POE(Point-Of-Entry) and community small scale system. From the literature review, we could thought that decentralized water supply system and hybrid system(integrating centralized and decentralized water supply system within urban water management) might have strengthening comparative advantages to centralized system with respect to: (1) water security, (2) sustainability, (3) economical affordability. Even though it is difficult to derive and quantify direct benefit advantages from decentralized and hybrid system in comparison with centralized system, (1) operational cost reduction, (2) assurance for safe and stability water supply and (3) greenhouse gas reduction can be expected from successful establishment of the former.
6 sigma is a management innovation strategy which improves most of all managerial processes including transactional and project based operations such as marketing, purchasing, accounting, and construction. Even though 6 sigma is trying to solve problems from the customer’s viewpoint in the scientific manner, project leader feels some difficulties in implementation because of several reasons. Especially the difficulties are prevalent in construction site. This paper investigates the cause of the difficulties through questionnaires, analyzes the investigation results, and verifies the critical success factors of 6 sigma implementation. Factor analysis has been usually employed in reducing quantity of data and summarizing information chaos. In this study, several variables from questionnaires are grouped into just only four factors by the process of factor analysis. The critical success factors are extracted as project management system, implementation mechanism, site condition, and project ownership. Some ideas for each individual success factor are suggested, which are expected to be useful in successful implementation of 6 Sigma in construction site.
The performance of inorganic sludge separation system is evaluated. Anaerobic digester effluent sludge is used for feed sludge of this system and hydrocyclone is used for inorganic sludge separation. For phosphorus removal and recovery MgCl2 is pumped into MAP growth tank, a component of inorganic sludge separation system. Using this system inorganic sludge which contained less than 40 % of organic matter can be discharged stably and the maximum amount of separated inorganic sludge is 13.4 % of influent sludge based on dry solid. The amount of phosphorus recovered as MAP(as P) is 16.7 % to influent T-P.