With a rapid expansion in electric vehicles, a huge amount of the spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) could be discharged in near future. And thus, the proper handling of the spent LIBs is essential to sustainable development in the industry of electrical vehicles. Among various approaches such as pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and direct recycling, the hydrometallurgical manner has gained interest in recycling the spent LIBs due to its high effectiveness in recycling raw materials (e.g., lithium, nickel, cobalt, and manganese). However, the hydrometallurgical process not only requires the use of large amounts of acids and water resources but also produces toxic gases and wastewater leading to environmental and economic problems, considering potential economic and environmental problems. Thus, this review aims to provide an overview of conventional and state-of-the-art hydrometallurgical processes to recover valuable metals from spent LIBs. First, we briefly introduce the basic principle and materials of LIBs. Then, we briefly introduce the operations and pros-and cons- of hydrometallurgical processes. Finally, this review proposes future research directions in hydrometallurgy, and its potential opportunities in the fundamental and practical challenges regarding its deployment going forward.
The emergence of micropollutants in natural water sources due to the overuse of anthropogenic chemicals in industry and households has threatened the production of clean and safe tap water in drinking water treatment plants. Conventional physicochemical processes such as coagulation/flocculation followed by sand filtration are not effective for the control of micropollutants, whereas chemical oxidation processes (applying chlorine, permanganate, ozone, etc.) are known to be promising alternatives. Determining the optimum oxidant dose is important issue related to the production of disinfection by-products as well as unnecessary operating cost, and is made possible by simulations of target-micropollutant abatement based on kinetic model equation consisting of second-order rate constant (between the oxidant and the target) and oxidant exposure. However, the difficulty in determining oxidant exposure as a function of complex water quality parameters limits the field application of kinetic model equation. With respect to representative oxidants used in drinking water treatment plants, this article reviews two main approaches for determining oxidant exposure: i) direct measurement in situ and ii) prediction by empirical models based on key water quality parameters. In addition, we discussed research requirements to improve the predictive accuracy of the empirical models for oxidant exposure and to develop a rational algorithm to determine optimal oxidant dose by considering the priority of the target pollutants to be treated.
The electrical connection between zinc metal and iron in contact with water prevents oxidation of iron until all zinc is dissolved, which is called a zinc sacrificial anode phenomenon. In the case of water pipes, zinc is often attached to the outside of the pipe, but examples of mounting zinc inside the pipe to prevent iron corrosion are not well known. Zinc devices sold for water pipes vary in the amount of zinc installed depending on the diameter of the pipe and the conditions of use, but the life of the product is generally expected to be 10-20 years until all zinc dissolves and disappears. Zinc ions dissolved from zinc to water in the pipe react with the calcium carbonate scale generated inside the pipe to consume zinc ions, and it was confirmed that the needle-shaped aragonite was converted into highly crystalline calcium after observing the scale crystal through an electron microscope. In addition, it is estimated that calcium ions of scale are replaced by zinc ions, gradually losing crystallinity, being deintercalated into the pipe, and oxygen in the water is consumed during the dissolution of zinc ions from zinc metals, turning red rust hematite (Fe2O3) into magnetite (Fe3O4). In addition, zinc ions were expected to move hundreds to thousands of meters depending on the diameter of the pipe in the new pipe, but it was confirmed that the travel distance was shortened in the case of pipes with many corrosion products.
To raise the physical strength of alginate beads, this study manufactured alginate-cellulose bead by adding cellulose to alginate, and wanted to identify whether falginate-cellulose beads were sufficiently efficient in removing heavy metals. To find out optimal amounts of alginate and cellulose injection, this study conducted a pilot study, and repeated experiments proved that alginate 2 w/v% + cellulose 1 w/v% were the optimal amounts in manufacturing beads. Using micro materials tester, this study compared strengths of alginate beads and alginate-cellulose beads. Choosing Cd2+, Pb2+, and Ni2+ as materials to be removed, this study analyzed concentrations of them before and after the treatment. Experiments showed that, compared with alginate beads, the strength of alginate-cellulose beads was 2.26 times stronger, and that the latter could remove 98.22%, 99.99%, and 92.57% of Cd2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, respectively. While addition of cellulose to alginate made the absorption rate drop by about 1%, the beads were still highly efficient in removing heavy metals. Accordingly, it seems that alginate-cellulose beads can be used in removing heavy metals.