The emergence of micropollutants in natural water sources due to the overuse of anthropogenic chemicals in industry and households has threatened the production of clean and safe tap water in drinking water treatment plants. Conventional physicochemical processes such as coagulation/flocculation followed by sand filtration are not effective for the control of micropollutants, whereas chemical oxidation processes (applying chlorine, permanganate, ozone, etc.) are known to be promising alternatives. Determining the optimum oxidant dose is important issue related to the production of disinfection by-products as well as unnecessary operating cost, and is made possible by simulations of target-micropollutant abatement based on kinetic model equation consisting of second-order rate constant (between the oxidant and the target) and oxidant exposure. However, the difficulty in determining oxidant exposure as a function of complex water quality parameters limits the field application of kinetic model equation. With respect to representative oxidants used in drinking water treatment plants, this article reviews two main approaches for determining oxidant exposure: i) direct measurement in situ and ii) prediction by empirical models based on key water quality parameters. In addition, we discussed research requirements to improve the predictive accuracy of the empirical models for oxidant exposure and to develop a rational algorithm to determine optimal oxidant dose by considering the priority of the target pollutants to be treated.
Consumers prefer high-quality organic agricultural products, but most organic farmers use conventional seeds. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an organic seed production technology for organic vegetable cultivation which will meet international organic standards. In this study, the effects of low temperature treatment and seedling size on flower bud differentiation and planting were investigated for the production of indigenous organic root vegetables seeds, radish, turnip, and beet. Radishes were bolted in large seedlings which were cold treated for 4 weeks after 16 days of transplantation. Turnips were bolted in small seedlings which were cold treated for 2 or 4 weeks after 28 days of transplantation. Beets were bolted in small seedlings which were cold treated for 4 weeks, 23 days after planting. It was found that small size radish seedlings were not affected by the 4 weeks low-temperature treatment, but for turnips and beets, smaller seedlings rapidly bolted as compared to larger seedlings which were treated for 2 or 4 weeks. Based on these results, it could be inferred that it is possible to increase the seed production yield of radish, turnip, and beet as well as predicting the planting time. These findings could be used as basic data to determine the appropriate seedling size and cold-treatment time.
In this study, the Bayesian state-space model was used for the stock assessment of the Blackfin flounder. In addition, effective measures for the resource management were presentedwith the analysis on the effectiveness of fisheries management plans. According to the result of the analysis using the Bayesian state-space model, the main biometric value of Blackfin flounder was analyzed as 1,985 tons for maximum sustainable yield (MSY), 23,930 tons for carrying capacity (K), 0.000007765 for catchability coefficient (q) and 0.31 for intrinsic growth (r). Also the evaluation on the biological effect of TAC was done. The result showed that the Blackfin flounder biomass will be kept at 14,637 tons 20 years later given the present TAC volume of 1,761 tons. If the Blackfin flounder TAC volume is set to 1,600 tons, the amount of biomass will increase to 16,252 tons in the future. Lastly, the biological effectiveness of the policy to reduce fishing effort was assessed. The result showed that the Blackfin flounder biomass will be maintained at 13,776 tons if the current fishing efforts (currently hp) level is set and maintained. If the fishing effort is reduced by 20%, it will increase to 17,091 tons in the future. The analysis on the economic effect of TAC showed that NPV will be the lowest at 1,486,410 won in 2038, 20 years after the establishment of 2,500 tons of TAC volume. If the TAC volume is set at 2,000 tons, NPV was estimated to be the highest at 2,206,522,000 won. In addition, the analysis on the economic effect of the policy to reduce the amount of fishing effort found that NPV will be 2,235,592,000 won in 2038, 20 years after maintaining the current level of fishing effort. If the fishing effort is increased by 10%, NPV will be the highest at 2,257,575 won even thoughthe amount of biomass will be reduced.
Tuna fisheries were applied to an integrated ecosystem-based fishery risk assessment method using indexes of target species status, inhabited species in a target ecosystem, habitat quality and socio-economic benefit of affected fisheries. This study suggested more effective and efficient management measures to break away from traditional management methods, such as limitation of catch and fishing effort. The results presented that the objective risk index (ORIS) on sustainability of bigeye and yellowfin tunas by purse seine fishery was estimated high due to the high catch ratio of small fishes. The ORIs of biodiversity (ORIB) and habitat quality (ORIH) of purse seine fishery were also estimated at a high level from using fish-aggregating devices (FAD). However, due to skipjack tuna’s high catches, the ORI of socio-economic benefit (ORIE) was estimated at a very low level. Due to the high bycatch rate, ORIB was high, and ORIS and ORIH were evaluated at a low level in longline fishery. Due to strengthern of fishing restrictions and increase of fishing costs, the ORIE was assessed to be very high. The ecosystem risk index (ERI) for two tuna fisheries was assessed low, but the overall FAD management by purse seine fishery is necessary at the ecosystem level.
Overfishing capacity has become a global issue due to over-exploitation of fisheries resources, which result from excessive fishing intensity since the 1980s. In the case of Korea, the fishing effort has been quantified and used as an quantified index of fishing intensity. Fisheries resources of coastal fisheries in the Korean waters of the East Sea tend to decrease productivity due to deterioration in the quality of ecosystem, which result from the excessive overfishing activities according to the development of fishing gear and engine performance of vessels. In order to manage sustainable and reasonable fisheries resources, it is important to understand the fluctuation of biomass and predict the future biomass. Therefore, in this study, we forecasted biomass in the Korean waters of the East Sea for the next two decades (2017~2036) according to the changes in fishing intensity using four fishing effort scenarios; , , 0.5× and 1.5× . For forecasting biomass in the Korean waters of the East Sea, parameters such as exploitable carrying capacity (ECC), intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) and catchability (q) estimated by maximum entropy (ME) model was utilized and logistic function was used. In addition, coefficient of variation (CV) by the Jackknife re-sampling method was used for estimation of coefficient of variation about exploitable carrying capacity (CVECC). As a result, future biomass can be fluctuated below the BPY level when the current level of fishing effort in 2016 maintains. The results of this study are expected to be utilized as useful data to suggest direction of establishment of fisheries resources management plan for sustainable use of fisheries resources in the future.
Due to the decrease in coastal productivity and deterioration in the quality of ecosystem which result from the excessive overfishing of fisheries resources and the environmental pollution, fisheries resources in the Korean waters hit the dangerous level in respect of quantity and quality. In order to manage sustainable and effective fisheries resources, it is necessary to suggest the potential yield (PY) for clarifying available fisheries resources in the Korean waters. So far, however, there have been few studies on the estimation methods for PY in Korea. In addition, there have been no studies on the comparative analysis of the estimation methods and the substantial estimation methods for PY targeted for large marine ecosystem (LME) For the reasonable management of fisheries resources, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study on the estimation methods for the PY which combines population dynamics and ecosystem dynamics. To reflect the research need, this study conducts a comparative analysis of estimation methods for the PY in the Korean waters of the East Sea to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and suggests the estimation method which considered both population dynamics and ecosystem dynamics to supplement shortcomings of each method. In this study, the maximum entropy (ME) model of the holistic production method (HPM) is considered to be the most reasonable estimation method due to the high reliability of the estimated parameters. The results of this study are expected to be used as significant basic data to provide indicators and reference points for sustainable and reasonable management of fisheries resources.
기후변화에 따른 자연재해의 증가하고 있다. 이에 자연재해에 의한 토목구조물의 피해 및 붕괴를 예방하기 위하여 처짐 및 균열을 지속적인 관리가 필요하다. 이에 효과적인 구조물 관리를 위해 광학 이미지 기술이 유지관리 기술에 적용되고 있 다. 하지만 광학이미지 기술은 촬영에 따른 주변 조건의 영향이 크며, 그 때문에 촬영조건에 대한 검증이 필요하다. 이를 위해 본 논문에서 촬영조건으로 자연광, 촬영매수, 촬영거리를 따른 수직변위 추정값의 정확도에 대해 검증하였다. 실험을 통 해 확인한 결과 자연광이 수직변위를 추정하는데 자연광이 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것을 확인할 수 있었고, 촬영거리 또한 수직변위를 검토하는데 주요한 영향을 미치는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 본 결과를 통해서 외부환경에서 촬영하는데 활용하여 변위 추정 시 발생하는 오차를 최소화할 수 있으며, 이러한 과정을 통해 구조물 유지관리에 적용할 수 있다.
The curved bridges shows very complicate behaviors compare to straight girders due to its initial curvature. Usually, the shear strength is investigated due to the aspect ratio(transverse stiffeners spacing/height of girder) and many researches have been conducted for the web shear strength for I-shaped curved girders with high aspect ratios(larger than 3). In this study, numerical studies are carried out and the results are compared with the current design practices. By the analyses, the maximum aspect ratio of a transversely stiffened web panel are suggested to revisits the validity of a limited imposed by Basler.
It is same such as the provision of shear buckling strength of steel composite box girder web panel and plate girder web panel in Korea Highway Bridge Design Standards(2012). But the web panel of steel composite box girder is different from the web of plate girder in that the upper slab and lower flange are connected to the web. So a different shear behavior of the girders is expected. In this study, To calculate a reasonable elastic shear buckling strength of steel composite box girder web panel, ABAQUS program was used. The results from F.E.A and previous studies are compared.
This study investigates the stress-strain relations of internally confined hollow concrete filled tube pier reinforced with GFRP tube by uniaxial compression test. The confined concrete subjected multi-axial stresses have been known as the strength of concrete increases significantly. Many researchers have studied in confining effects of CFT which have only outer GFRP tube. In this study, specimens reinforced with outer and inner GFRP tube were tested by uniaxial compression test. To investigate the influence of concrete strength increase by confining conditions in GFRP tube, 13 specimens with different thickness of tube, hollowness ratio and nominal concrete strength were tested and compared with Steel tube.