Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) began to operate in earnest in the early 1980s. Since then, the total catch has shown an increasing trend and the target species are skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacare) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus). Based on the operational data of Korean tuna purse seine fishery from 2016 to 2020, the catch rates of target species (skipjack and yellowfin tunas) were analyzed by operation time for set types (free school and FAD sets). In the case of the free school sets, they were usually made from sunrise to sunset, and the catch rate was high before and after sunrise for skipjack tuna and before sunset for yellowfin tuna. On the other hand, for the FAD sets, more than 90% of them were made just before sunrise, and there were few operations during the daytime. The purpose of this study is to examine whether there are differences in the catch rate of skipjack and yellowfin tunas by operation time and by school type for Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the WCPO, which could be helpful in understanding its fishing characteristics and providing useful information for developing the stock indices of the target species.
Tuna fisheries were applied to an integrated ecosystem-based fishery risk assessment method using indexes of target species status, inhabited species in a target ecosystem, habitat quality and socio-economic benefit of affected fisheries. This study suggested more effective and efficient management measures to break away from traditional management methods, such as limitation of catch and fishing effort. The results presented that the objective risk index (ORIS) on sustainability of bigeye and yellowfin tunas by purse seine fishery was estimated high due to the high catch ratio of small fishes. The ORIs of biodiversity (ORIB) and habitat quality (ORIH) of purse seine fishery were also estimated at a high level from using fish-aggregating devices (FAD). However, due to skipjack tuna’s high catches, the ORI of socio-economic benefit (ORIE) was estimated at a very low level. Due to the high bycatch rate, ORIB was high, and ORIS and ORIH were evaluated at a low level in longline fishery. Due to strengthern of fishing restrictions and increase of fishing costs, the ORIE was assessed to be very high. The ecosystem risk index (ERI) for two tuna fisheries was assessed low, but the overall FAD management by purse seine fishery is necessary at the ecosystem level.
In order to understand characteristics on bycatch of Korean tuna purse seine fishery, especially operations associated with Fish Aggregating Device (FAD) in the Indian Ocean, we conducted analyses related to bycatch by school association type (unassociated school, FAD associated school and log associated school) using the data collected by scientific observers from 2016 to 2018. The FAD used by Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the Indian Ocean was a drifting FAD, which belongs to non-entangling FADs according to the category proposed by the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF). The target species of Korean tuna purse seine fishery are skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tunas, accounting for 99% of the total catch. The ratio of bycatch was 0.97% in total catch and the discard accounted for less than 1%, indicating that most catch was retained on board. In terms of bycatch ratio by school association type, it accounted for 0.12% for unassociated school, 1.09% for FAD associated school and 1.25% for log associated school. As for the catch proportion of shark species by school association type, it accounted for 0.01% for unassociated school, 0.11% for FAD associated school and 0.10% for log associated school, which showed that unassociated school type was the lowest to affect bycatch of non-target and shark species. Given the proportion of bycatch compositions, however, it is considered that FAD associated school of Korean tuna purse seine fishery has less caught bycatch species of non-target and shark, compared to other fleets operating in the Indian Ocean.
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between international oil price as a fuel cost in overseas fisheries and skipjack tuna price as a part of main products in overseas fisheries using monthly time series data from 2008 to 2017. The study also tried to analyze the change of fishing profits by fuel cost. For a time series analysis, this study conducted both the unit-root test for stability of data and the Johansen cointegration test for long-term equilibrium relations among variables. In addition, it used not only the Granger causality test to examine interactions among variables, but also the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR) model to estimate statistical impacts among variables used in the model. Results of this study are as follows. First, each data on variables was not found to be stationary from the ADF unit-root test and long-term equilibrium relations among variables were not found from a Johansen cointegration test. Second, the Granger causality test showed that the international oil prices would directly cause changes in skipjack tuna prices. Third, the VAR model indicated that the posterior t-2 period change of international oil price would have an statistically significant effect on changes of skipjack tuna prices. Finally, fishing profits from skipjack would be decreased by 0.06% if the fuel cost increases by 1%.
The feeding habits of Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis were analyzed using samples by large purse seine fishery in Korean waters from 2012 to 2017. The number of samples was 1,274 and the fork-length (FL) ranged from 34.6 to 218.0 cm. According to %IRI, the Important main prey items of immature individuals (below 91.4 cm in FL) were Pisces, Cephalopoda and Euphausiacea and those of mature individuals were Cephalopoda and Pisces. T. orientalis showed ontogenetic changes in prey item that Pisces was dominated in size class of 30-89 cm (FL), Cephalopoda in 90-179 cm (FL), and Pisces above 180 cm. As for seasonal changes in prey item, Cephalopoda was dominant in spring and Pisces was dominant in summer, autumn and winter. %F, %N, %W and %IRI cluster analysis divided area into three groups: Group A was dominated by Pisces; Group B was dominated by Cephalopoda, and Group C was dominated by Euphausiacea.
Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) has been mostly caught by the Korean offshore large purse seine fishery in Korean waters. The annual catch of Pacific bluefin tuna caught by the offshore large purse seine fishery in Korean waters showed less than 1,000 mt until the 1990s except for 1997. The catch sharply increased to 2,401 mt in 2000 and recorded the highest of 2,601 mt in 2003, but the catch has generally decreased with a fluctuation thereafter. The main fishing ground of Pacific bluefin tuna of this fishery is formed around Jeju Island. However, it expanded to the Yellow Sea, the coastal of Busan, and the East Sea, which depends on the migration patterns of Pacific bluefin tuna by season. The CPUE standardization of Pacific bluefin tuna was conducted using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) to assess the proxy of the abundance index. The data used for the GLM were catch (weight), effort (number of hauls), catch ratio of Pacific bluefin tuna, moon phase by year, quarter and area. The standardized CPUE from 2004 to 2011, except for 2003 and 2010, showed a steady trend, and then increased until 2014. The CPUE in 2015 decreased, and in 2016 was higher than that in 2015. The result of GLM suggests that the effect of the catch ratio of Pacific bluefin tuna is the largest factor affecting the nominal CPUE.
The purpose of this study is to provide basic data to help ensure the safety and enhance industrial competitiveness of plant construction projects by analyzing the safety management status of, mainly, chemical engineering plant construction projects, and proposing specific measures and models to reduce human/educational, technical/systemic, institutional disasters. This study was done using literature research and case study/empirical study methods. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, we classified the major disasters from the quarterly released ‘major diaster cases in construction business’from Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency according to the type of construction and presented the causes and prevention measures.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the efficiency of distant-water longline fishing vessels in the Pacific Ocean and the gap in efficiencies among individual vessels. In order to estimate the efficiency, the dependent variable is set as an amount of catch and independent variables include number of crew, number of hooks, number of vessel size, and vessels engine power associated with fishing activities of distant water longline fisheries. Analytical result was shown as follows: first, the average efficiency of distant-water longline fishing vessels in the Pacific Ocean was found to be 94%. Second, the number of hooks were found to be statistically significant in each input variable and the appropriate control of the number of hooks would be expected to have a positive effect on the efficiency. Third, the relationship between the age of a vessel and the efficiency was not found statistically.
Tuna purse seine fishery in the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) has been rapidly developed since early 1980s due to massive investment of major distant water fishing nations, and catch by purse seine fishery operating in the WCPO accounts for nearly half of the world’s tuna total catch. As fishing efficiency is reflected by not only improving of individual vessel’s capacity but also increasing number of active vessel, it is essential to understand vessel capacity for reliable assessment result on how fishery affects stock status of target species. In this study, fishing efficiency was analyzed by main factors which are representative of vessel capacity using fishing data and vessel information related to Korean tuna purse seine fishery operating in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1992 to 2014. It showed that fishing efficiency of vessel tends to be higher when having larger vessel tonnage, higher engine power, lower vessel age and larger length of vessel. As for fishing efficiency by set type, CPUE of associated set with floating objects was generally higher than that of free school set, and CPUE of free school set seemed to have a greater effect on engine power and vessel age compared to other factors.
The purposes of this study are to analyze risks of construction step BIM(Building Information Modeling) applied project and improve it. Recently, construction industry has emphasized an importance of BIM for efficient utilization of various information. In the whole life cycle of huge construction project, there are cases introducing BIM and projects applying BIM are gradually increased to the work of construction step. However, the process of cooperation is not established, so the contents of BIM process of construction step are just showing rough fields and concepts of working utilization, so it's restrictive to utilize BIM actively on constructions step. Through results of case study in this research, Construction company risks of BIM business should be efficiently treated with Fuzzy-FMEA that is more precise than existing danger evaluation.
In the construction sites, rush (speedy construction) work have recently been overused because of budget reductions by reducing the construction duration after the long-term economic recession and construction business stagnation with institutional change including the instruction of the duration shortening bidding system and the introduction of the post-construction sales system by the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements. Due to this, negligent accidents have frequently occurred by forcing manpower, equipment, finance, and material procurement and pressing ahead with impractical construction wok at night according to the reduction of construction schedules. Therefore, this paper has the necessity of this study to seek for alternatives to prevent negligent accidents by finding factors related to rush work in the reality that the importance for preventing negligent accidents is more emphasized while they have not been reduced in construction sites.
In unlimited competition era changed rapidly, productivity improvement and raw cost reduction by working improvement are very important for the survival of middle and small-sized companies. At this moment, middle and small-sized companies are cleary important in domestic industry. Therefore, this researcher applied TPS(Toyota production system) 7 wastes by experiment planning method for wastes of lots of working processes at the manufacturing site of automobile assembly manufacturing company, D company, analyzed current system of D company applied so as to verify if value creation works and factors were minimized during the production and drew results by analyzing experimental planning for analyzing waste elimination.
The WCPFC CMMs related to tropical tunas have been strongly restricting fishing capacity and operating activities of main fisheries, especially purse seine fishery. In terms of changes in fishing trend by implementing relevant measures of FAD set, the number of FAD set by Korean purse seine fleet showed a decreasing pattern with the lowest level of FAD set proportion among major distant water fishing nations. With regards to the FAD closure, there was no significant change in fishing effort but a drop in catch, especially bigeye tuna during the period of FAD closure. Moreover, it showed closely similar trends between the number of FAD set and bigeye tuna catch. In terms of measures related to the high sea area including a ban on fishing on the HSP and limitation of fishing days on the high sea by flag state, proportions of catch and effort on the high sea had sharply declined after implementing those measures. As relevant measures are expected to be strengthened, it should pay attention to change of coastal nations policies and focus on improving fishing efficiency of unassociated school set with multi-pronged efforts.
Fishing characteristics of Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the Pacific Ocean were investigated using logbook data compiled from captain onboard and the statistical data from 1980 to 2014. Changes in fishing ground and correlation between marine environmental factors and fishing patterns were investigated using Oceanographic index. The proportion of unassociated set was higher than that of associated set. The catch proportion of yellowfin was higher in the unassociated set, while that of skipjack and bigeye was higher in the associated set. Due to vessels, fishing gears and Korean captains’ high-level of skills in fishing technology optimized for the unassociated set and preference of large fishes, especially large yellowfin tuna, it showed unique fishing characteristics focusing on the unassociated set. As for fishing distributions of Korean tuna purse seine fishery and impacts of oceanographic conditions on the fishery, the main fishing ground was concentrated on the area of 5°N~10°S, 140°E~180° through the decades. When stronger El-nino occurred, the range of fishing ground tended to expand and main fishing ground moved to the eastern part of western and central Pacific Ocean. During this season, yellowfin tuna had high CPUE and catch proportion of yellowfin tuna in the eastern part also increased. As for the proportion of fishing effort by set type, proportion of log associated set was high during El-nino season while that of FAD associated set was high during La-nina season.
The feeding habits of the Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis were examined based on the stomach contents of 330 specimens caught by offshore large purse seine fishery in the southern sea of Korea, 2011. The size of Pacific bluefin tuna used in this study ranged from 34.1 to 67.3 cm in fork length (FL). The percentage of empty stomachs was 41.8%. The main prey items were Pisces and Cephalopoda based on percentage IRI (index of relative importance). The main fish preys were Trachurus japonicus, Bregmaceros japonicus, Engraulis japonicus, and Cephalopoda were Todarodes pacificus, Loligo edulis, Watasenia scintillans. T. orientalis showed ontogenetic change in diet composition. Although Pisces dominated the diet of all length classes the portion of Cephalopoda was relatively higher in size between 40 and 50 cm other than length classes. In terms of seasonal variation in feeding habits, Pisces was the main prey group in all seasons, but Cephalopoda was also frequently consumed during spring and autumn based on %IRI.
Fishing trend and characteristics of Korean tuna purse seine fishery in the Pacific Ocean were investigated using logbook data compiled from captain onboard and the statistical data from 1980 to 2013. The historical catch of this fishery had sharply increased since mid–1980s, and it has shown fluctuations with about 2–3 hundred thousands, whereas the catch per number of vessel has steadily increased with fluctuations since commencing this fishery. As for the proportion of catch by set type, unassociated type had increased from the mid–1980s to the end of 1990s, and then has decreased up to 2010s. Associated type had decreased continually to the end of 1990s, however, it started to increase since the beginning of 2000s. As for the catch proportion of set type by main species, those of skipjack tuna and bigeye tuna showed higher in the associated type, whereas that of yellowfin tuna has the highest proportion in the unassociated type. Fishing distribution of Korean tuna purse seine fishery was concentrated on the area of 5°N~10°S and 140°E~180° through the decades. The monthly catch distribution by longitudinal zone of Korean tuna purse seine fishery expanded the most further to the eastward in September to October.