When evaluating the extent of the impact of water pollutants on the surrounding area, we would like to present the target level (proposal) of the quality of the environment, which is the standard for evaluation. We propose the environmental quality target level for substances that need to be applied domestically by investigating overseas cases operating the integrated environmental management system and the implications of domestic environmental pollutant management. The appropriateness of the environmental quality target level reviewed in this study was determined using data from the water quality measuring network, and future improvement measures were proposed. We review the available methodologies for setting quality objectives for the environment. It proposed the environmental quality target level for 21 substances that have domestic water pollutant emission standards and do not have environmental standards, and proposed future improvement measures. If it is necessary to add quality target-level items of the environment in the future, it is believed that expansion will be possible based on the methodology presented in this study.
In MBR, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is known as an important factor of fouling; soluble EPS (sEPS) affects internal contamination of membrane, and bound EPS (bEPS) affects the formation of the cake layer. The production of EPS changes according to the composition of influent, which affects fouling characteristics. Therefore, in this study, the effects of the F/M ratio on the sEPS concentration, bEPS content, and fouling were evaluated. The effects of F/M ratio on the amount and composition of EPS were confirmed by setting conditions that were very low or higher than the general F/M ratio of MBR, and the fouling occurrence characteristics were evaluated by filtration resistance distribution. As a result, it was found that the sEPS increased significantly with the increase of the F/M ratio. When the substrate was depleted, bEPS content decreased because bEPS was hydrolyzed into BAP and seemed to be used as a substrate. In contrast, when the substrate is sufficient, UAP (utilization-associated products) was rapidly generated in proportion with the consumption of the substrate. UAP has a relatively higher Protein/Carbohydrate ratio (P/C ratio) than BAP, and this means, it has a higher adhesive force to the membrane surface. As a result, UAP seems like causing fouling rather than BAP (biomass-associated products). Therefore, Rf (Resistance of internal contamination) increased rapidly with the increase of UAP, and Rc (Resistance of cake layer) increased with the accumulation of bEPS in proportion, and as a result, the fouling interval was shortened. According to this study, a high F/M ratio leads to an increment in UAP generation and accumulation of bEPS, and by these UAP and bEPS, membrane fouling is promoted.
Due to the large-scale production and use of synthetic chemicals in industralized countries, various chemicals are found in the aquatic environment, which are often termed as micropollutants. Effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been identified as one of the major sources of these micropollutants. In this article, the current status of occurrence and removal of micropollutants in WWTPs and their management policies and options in domestic and foregin countries were critically reviewed. A large number of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and industrial chemicals are found in WWTPs’ influent, and are only partially removed by current biological wastewater treatment processes. As a result, some micropollutants are present in WWTPs’ effluents, which can negatively affect receiving water quality or drinking water source. To better understand and assess the potential risk of micropollutants, a systematic monitoring framework including advanced analytical tools such as high resolution mass spectrometry and bioanalytical methods is needed. Some Western European countries are taking proactive approach to controlling the micropollutants by upgrading WWTP with enahnced effluent treatment processes. While this enahnced WWTP effluent treatment appears to be a viable option for controlling micropollutant, its implementation requires careful consideration of the technical, economical, political, and cultural issues of all stakeholders.
This study examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV) application on bacterial disinfection in a commercialized humidifier using ultrasonic wave (UW). To accurately examine disinfection kinetics in tap-water condition, tap-water was sterilized using a filter, and then inoculated with pure cultures of E. coli and P. putida with known viable counts. The disinfection kinetic characteristics were experimentally compared when UV alone, UW alone, and UW+UV together were applied in disinfecting the added bacteria in the commercialized humidifier. When UV alone was applied, bacterial disinfection kinetics followed a first-order decay reaction, and showed an approximately 10-time weaker disinfection compared to the typical UV disinfection in water treatment or wastewater treatment. When UW alone was applied, bacterial disinfection kinetics followed a second-order decay reaction with a low disinfection rate constant of 0.0002 min-1(CFU/mL)-1. When UV and UW were applied together, however and interestingly, the disinfection rate constant (0.0211 min-1(CFU/mL)-1) was approximately 100 times increased than that for the UW alone case. These results revealed that the co-use of UV and UW can provide synergistic effect on bacterial disinfection in a tap-water condition in household humidifiers.
The ILI, developed by the IWA (International Water Association), has been used in many countries as an indicator of water leakage. In Korea, the revenue water has been used as a performance indicator for waterworks although there is an opinion to replace it with the ILI. Hence, it has been necessary to investigate whether the ILI can replace the revenue water in Korea. The four main operating indicators (i.e., water service population, profit-loss ratio, fiscal self-reliance, and aged pipe rate) of 162 Korean waterworks were compared with the ILI with the linear regression method. Local water authorities with more than 1 million water service population, with more than 60% profit-loss ratio, more than 40% and less than 60% fiscal self-reliance, and more than 20% aged pipe rate showed meaningful correlation between the four parameters and the ILI. In the remaining cases, their correlations were little or weak. This means that using the ILI may not be an efficient method to represent the performance of the water supply system in Korea because of the lack of UARL (Unavoidable Annual Real Losses) data accuracy. To use the ILI in Korea, it will be required to carry out an additional research to accumulate reliable CARL (Current Annual Real Losses) and UARL data in the future.