The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of sewerage facilities through I/I analysis by rainfall by selecting areas where storm overflow diverging chamber is remained due to the non-maintenance drainage equipment when the sewerage system was reconstructed as a separate sewer system. Research has shown that wet weather flow(WWF) increased from 106.2% to 154.8% compared to dry weather flow(DWF) in intercepting sewers, and that the WWF increased from 122.4% to 257.6% in comparison to DWF in storm overflow diverging chamber. As a result, owing to storm overflow diverging chamber of partially separate sewer system with untreated tributary of sewage treatment plant, rainfall-derived infiltration/inflow(RDII) has been analyzed 2.7 times higher than the areas without storm overflow diverging chamber. Meanwhile, infiltration quantity of this study area was relatively higher than that of other study areas. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce infiltration quantity through sewer pipe maintenance nearby river. Drainage equipment maintenance should be performed not to operate storm overflow diverging chamber in order to handle the appropriate sewage treatment plant capacity for rainfall because it is also expected that RDII due to rain will occur after maintenance. In conclusion, it is necessary to recognize aRDII(allowance of rainfall-derived infiltration/inflow) and to be reflected it on sewage treatment plant capacity because aRDII can occur even after maintenance to the complete separate sewer system.
The 20-kHz ultrasonic irradiation was applied to investigate bacterial inactivation and antibiotic susceptibility changes over time. Applied intensities of ultrasound power were varied at 27.7 W and 39.1 W by changing the amplitude 20 to 40 to three bacteria species (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus). By 15-min irradiation, E. coli, a gram-negative bacterium, showed 1.2- to 1.6-log removals, while the gram-positive bacteria, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, showed below 0.5-log removal efficiencies. Antibiotic susceptibility of penicillin-family showed a dramatic increase at E. coli, but for other antibiotic families showed no significant changes in susceptibility. Gram-positive bacteria showed no significant differences in their antibiotic susceptibilities after ultrasound irradiation. Bacterial re-survival and antibiotic susceptibility changes were measured by incubating the ultrasound-irradiated samples. After 24-hour incubation, it was found that all of three bacteria were repropagated to the 2- to 3-log greater than the initial points, and antibiotic inhibition zones were reduced compared to ones of the initial points, meaning that antibiotic resistances were also recovered. Pearson correlations between bacterial inactivation and antibiotic susceptibility showed negative relation for gram-negative bacteria, E. coli., and no significant relations between bacterial re-survival and its inhibition zone. As a preliminary study, further researches are necessary to find practical and effective conditions to achieve bacteria inactivation.
Batch adsorption tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of adsorption kinetic model by using hydrogel chitosan bead crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (HCB-G) for Cu(II) as cation and/or phosphate as anion. Pseudo first and second order model were applied to determine the sorption kinetic property and intraparticle and Boyd equation were used to predict the diffusion of Cu(II) and phosphate at pore and boundary-layer, respectively. According to the value of theoretical and experimental uptake of Cu(II) and phosphate, pseudo second order is more suitable. On comparison with the value of adsorption rate constant (k), phosphate kinetic was 2-4 times faster than that of Cu(II) at any experimental condition indicating the electrostatic interaction between NH3 + and phosphate is dominated at the presence of single component. However, when Cu(II) and phosphate simultaneously exist, the value of k for phosphate was sharply decreased and then the difference was not significant. Both diffusion models confirmed that the sorption rate was controlled by film mass transfer at the beginning time (t < 3 hr) and pore diffusion at next time section (t > 6 hr).
Recent focus on wastewater treatment includes energy-saving and renewable energy generation for energy-independence of water infrastructures. Aeration and pumping in biological wastewater removal processes account for nearly 30-60% of the total electricity cost in real wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the performance and microbial characteristics were investigated in sequencing batch reactor under typical oxygen and oxygen limited condition. Under typical DO (7.55±0.99 mg/L) and low DO (0.23±0.08 mg/L) conditions, COD removal was stable over 91 % during SBR operation. Ammonia removal efficiency was reduced from 95.6 % to 89.2 % when DO concentration was dropped sharply. Phosphorus removal efficiency also reached 77% at oxygen-limited condition. The results indicated that removal efficiency both ammonia and phosphorus was influenced by DO condition. Microbial analysis revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes at phylum level was dominant in typical DO and low DO conditions and DO concentration did not much affect phylum distribution. Population decrease of genera of nitrifying bacteria(Dokdonella) and Dechloromonas spp. affect removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus at low DO condition.
This study is focused on effects of factors that affect the formation of THMs during chlorination in drinking water treatment. During the chlorination, chlorine consumption is increased by increasing the initial chlorine dose, the pH and the total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration. Also THMs formation is increased up to 58.82 μg/L and 55.54 μg/L by increasing initial chlorine concentration and increasing pH. However, concentration of chloroform is decreased by increasing TDS concentration. This is caused the cation(Na+) of the total dissolved solids preferentially reacts with the functional groups of the organic material which influence the trihalomethane formation. But total trihalomethane formation is increased up to 127.46 μg/L by Br- contained in the total dissolved solids. DOC reduction was not influenced by any of the factors.