High voltage impulse (HVI) has been gained attention as an alternative technique that could control the CaCO3 scale problems encountered in water main, pipe, cooling tower and heat exchanger vessels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electric field (E) and contact time (t) of HVI on reduction of Ca2+ concentration at two different temperatures of 25℃ and 60℃. A kinetic model on the effect of E and t was investigated too. As the E and t increased, the Ca2+ concentration decreased more than that of the control (= no HVI). The Ca2+ concentration decreased up to 81% at 15 kV/cm at 60℃, which was nearly 2 times greater than the control. With these experimental data-set of reduction of Ca2+ concentration under different E and t, the kinetic model was developed. The relationship between E and t required to reduce the concentration of Ca2+ by 30% was modeled at each temperature. The empirical model equations were; E0.83· t = 60.3 at 25℃ and E0.08· t = 1.1 at 60℃. These equations state the products of En and t is always constant, which means that the required contact time can be reduced in accordance with the increment of E and vice versa.
This study set up the estimates of leakage management efficiency evaluation and leakage management goal that could be used in local water distribution networks efficiency business and modernization business. The data were analyzed using data envelopment analysis and multiple regression analysis. To this end, with leakage management input indices concerning leakage reduction activities (e.g., aged pipe replacement, water meter replacement, leakage restoration, and leakage detection) and leakage management calculation indices (e.g., the increase of revenue water ratio and the reduction of leakage ratio), the data on 22 K-water consignment local water supply systems were analyzed for the years from 2004 through 2018. Using the results of efficiency analysis by data envelopment analysis, the other DMUs (Decision Making Unit) benchmarked the DMU with the highest efficiency to maximize the leakage management efficiency for all DMUs. Through this, leakage management goal estimates were drawn with the input indices of four leakage reduction activities and calculation indices of the increase of revenue water ratio and the reduction of leakage ratio by multiple regression analysis for each group based on the revenue water ratio and leakage ratio. The correlation coefficients of the leakage management goal estimate for the criteria for the revenue water ratio amounted to 0.553 and 0.771. The correlation coefficients of the leakage management goal estimate for the criteria for leakage ratio were 0.397 and 0.865. Accordingly, we estimated the quantity and priority of four leakage reduction activities for the target leakage ratio and revenue water ratio.
The activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) immobilized in synthetic media (Poly Ethylene Glycol, PEG) and granular form was evaluated comparatively to investigate the effect of influent nitrogen concentration and exposure of oxygen. In ANAMMOX granule reactor, when concentration of influent total nitrogen increased to 500mg/L, removal efficiency of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were shown to 90.5±6.5, 96.6±4.9, and 93.2±6.1%, respectively. In the case of the PEG gel, it showed lower nitrogen removal performance, resulting in that the removal efficiency of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were shown to 83.3±13.0, 96.4±6.1, and 90.3±7.5%, respectively. In second step, when exposed to oxygen, the nitrogen removal performance in the ANAMMOX granule reactor also remained stable, but the activity of PEG gel ANAMMOX was found to be inhibited. Consequently, the PEG gel ANAMMOX was a higher sensitivity than that of granular ANAMMOX with two variables applied in this study.
It is investigated in this study how the water supply system has been developed in North Korea. Articles published in the Rodong Newspaper (North Korea official newspaper) were mainly reviewed for this purpose. It was found in this study that the development of the water supply system in the North Korea was affected by their socioeconomic situations. Their water supply development was categorized into six groups in this study since the first water supply system built in Pyongyang (1910); Occupation period (1910~1945); Introduction period (1946~1950); Restoration period (1951~1960); Advancement period (1961~1970); New village period (1971~1974); Depression period (1974~).
The effects of activated carbon originated Ballasted Flocculant (BF) on the settleability of activated sludge and the recovery of BF by Hydro-cyclone (HC) were analyzed experimentally. Two kinds of BF (M-I: 125-250 μm, M-II: 250-425 μm in dia.) and three kinds of activated sludges with different SS concentration (2,300-7,100 mg/L) were applied for this study. With the dosage variation of BF from 0.14 to 1.3 g-BF/g-SS, we could obtain 24-31% improvement in SV30 (Sludge Volume after 30min sedimentation) for the lowest SS concentration sludge (2,300 mg/L). Whereas the SV30 improvement was much higher as 44-48% for the highest SS concentration sludge (7,100 mg/L). The settling characteristics of the sludge with BF followed Vesilind model the best among three models (Vesilind, Takacs and Cho model). HC could effectively separate BF with the separation efficiency of 70-90% and over 95% separation efficiency could be obtained when the HC was applied twice.
Heatwaves are one of the most common phenomena originating from changes in the urban thermal environment. They are caused mainly by the evapotranspiration decrease of surface impermeable areas from increases in temperature and reflected heat, leading to a dry urban environment that can deteriorate aspects of everyday life. This study aimed to calculate daily maximum ground surface temperature affecting heatwaves, to quantify the effects of urban thermal environment control through water cycle restoration while validating its feasibility. The maximum surface temperature regression equation according to the impermeable area ratios of urban land cover types was derived. The estimated values from daily maximum ground surface temperature regression equation were compared with actual measured values to validate the calculation method’s feasibility. The land cover classification and derivation of specific parameters were conducted by classifying land cover into buildings, roads, rivers, and lands. Detailed parameters were classified by the river area ratio, land impermeable area ratio, and green area ratio of each land-cover type, with the exception of the rivers, to derive the maximum surface temperature regression equation of each land cover type. The regression equation feasibility assessment showed that the estimated maximum surface temperature values were within the level of significance. The maximum surface temperature decreased by 0.0450˚C when the green area ratio increased by 1% and increased by 0.0321˚C when the impermeable area ratio increased by 1%. It was determined that the surface reduction effect through increases in the green area ratio was 29% higher than the increasing effect of surface temperature due to the impermeable land ratio.