Method of characteristic(MOC) has been widely used as a transient analysis technique for pressurized pipeline systems. There are substantial studies using MOC for the water hammer triggered through instantaneous valve closures, pump stoppage and pump startup for pipelines systems equipped with a centrifugal pump. Considering restrictions of MOC associated with courant number condition for complicated pipeline systems, an impulse response method(IRM) was developed in the frequency domain. this study implements the impact of centrifugal pump using transfer function in frequency domain approach. Using pump performance curve and the affinity law, this study formulated transfer functions which relate complex pressure head at upstream of pump system to that of downstream location. Simulations of simple reservoir-pump-valve system using IRM with formulated transfer function were similar to those obtained through MOC.
Pressure monitoring is expected to be expanded in a water distribution system according to accelerated development of smart water network management technologies caused by appearances of affordable digital infrastructures like computing, storage and bandwidth. However, the placement of pressure sensors has been determined by engineer’s technical decisions since there is no well-defined criteria for deciding a suitable location of pressure sensor. This study presents a placement method of pressure sensors based on the consideration of allowable error in calibrating water network analysis modeling. The proposed method is to find a minimum set of pressure sensors for achieving a reliable management of water transmissions main and increasing the efficiency of their real-time operation. In the case study in Y area’s transmission main, the proposed method shows equally distributed pressure sensors in terms of hydraulics. It is expected that the proposed method can be used to manage transmission mains stably and construct a robust real-time network analysis system as a minimal criteria.
In this study, a flat-type photocatalytic reactor is applied under solar irradiation for simultaneous treatment of target pollutants: reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and oxidation of EDCs (BPA, EE2, E2). An immobilized type of photocatalyst was fabricated to have self-grown nanotubes on its surface in order to overcome limitations of powdery photocatalyst. Moreover, Ti mesh form was chosen as substrate and modified to have both larger surface area and photocatalyst content. Ti mesh was anodized at 50V and 25°C for 30min in the mixed electrolytes (NH4F-H2O-C2H6O2) and annealed at 450°C for 2 hours in ambient oxygen to have anatase structure. Surface characterization was done with SEM and XRD methodologies. Fabricated NTT was applied to water treatment, and coexisting Cr(VI) and organics (EDCs) enhanced each other's reactions by scavenging holes and electrons and thus impeding recombination. Also, several experiments were conducted outdoor under direct sunlight and it was observed that both solar-tracking and applying modified photocatalyst were proven to enhance reaction efficiency.
Shale gas has become increasingly important as a viable alternative to conventional gas resources. However, one of the critical issues in the development of shale gas is the generation of produced water, which contains high concentration of ionic compounds (> TDS of 100,000 mg/L). Accordingly, membrane distillation (MD) was considered to treat such produced water. Experiments were carried out using a laboratory-scale direct contact MD (DCMD). Synthetic produced water was prepared to examine its fouling propensity in MD process. Antiscalants and in-line filtration were applied to control fouling by scale formation. Fouling rates (-dJ/dt) were calculated for in-depth analysis of fouling behaviors. Results showed that severe fouling occurred during the treatment of high range produced water (TDS of 308 g/L). Application of antiscalant was not effective to retard scale formation. On the other hand, in-line filtration increased the induction time and reduced fouling.
Seawater desalination market after global economic crisis has been stalled due to the market uncertainties and decreased demand in desalination. It is important to review the status of the market and to estimate the appropriate share of Forward osmosis-Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) hybrid desalination technology by figuring out the outlook of the desalination market. Main part of the desalination market will still be MENA (Middle East and North Africa) in the near future due to the fast population increase and high dependency of fossil fuel in the region. The market for FO-RO hybrid technology, however, might be smaller than the conventional SWRO desalination market anyway because of aesthetic issues from using wastewater as raw water and higher costs associated with capex. Therefore, it is essential to improve FO membrane performance and system operation technologies in order to make the hybrid technology attractive compared to the conventional SWRO technology.
Supplying clean and safe water to people is facing both quantitative and qualitative challenges. Due to climate change, access to freshwater becomes increasingly difficult, while pollution from various sources decreases the public trust in water quality. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) which stores and uses surface water in aquifer is receiving attention as a new technology to secure freshwater. Recently, there is a global expansion in the attempt to combine general purification plants and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) which manages all the process from raw material to consumer for food safety. This research is about an attempt to apply HACCP to the drinking water supply process using MAR to secure both quantity and quality of drinking water. The study site is a MAR plant being constructed in the downstream area of the Nakdong River Basin, South Korea. The incorporation of HACCP with MAR-based water supply system is expected to enhance the safety and reliability of drinking water.
This study compares characteristic of membrane fouling in MBR-RO systems. In lab. scale MBRs test, MBRs were operated at different Flux(10, 20, 30 & 40 LMH) and temperature(10, 15, 20, 25 & 30°C). The results show that MBR permeate was measured lower amounts of organic substances in Higher flux and lower temperature and led to lower RO fouling rates. The main cause was that due to cake fouling formed on membrane surfaces in MBRs. Under both cases, Cake layer of membrane surfaces formed in MBRs removed RO fouling factors, polysaccharide and protein, because of cake layer attached on membrane surfaces greater amounts of organic substances. This study implies that optimization of MBR with operating conditions is a crucial strategy to RO membrane fouling control.
There has been increasing global interest in the environmental pollution problems produced by fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In order to tackle these issues, new renewable energy such as solar, wind, bio gas, fuel cell and pressure retarded osmosis(PRO) have been developed extensively. Among these energy sources, PRO is one of the salinity gradient power generation methods. In PRO, energy is obtained by the osmotic pressure generated from the concentration difference between high and low concentration solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. The development for high power density PRO membranes is imperative with the purpose of commercialization. This study investigates development of thin film composite PRO membrane and spiral wound module for high power density. Also, the influence of membrane backing layer on power density was identified, and the characteristic factors of PRO membranes was determined. Different backing layers were used to improve power density. As expected, the PRO membrane with more porous backing layer showed higher power density.
In this paper a concept of the paradigm shift in the operations of Water and Wastewater systems regarding the production and usage of water was introduced. Based on this concept the interrelationships between the water quality in the upper basin of NakDong River relative to Busan and the degree of satisfaction of the customers on the water supply service in Busan were modeled using the System Dynamics modeling methodology. SamRangJin basin area was determined as the upper basin of Busan after analyzing the relationships between the water quality of MoolGeum water intake point and water quality data of various mid- and upper water intake points along NakDong River. The amount of contaminants generated in SamRangJin basin was modeled using the Gross Regional Domestic Product in the area and the treated amount was calculated using the efficiency of wastewater treatment and the degree of improvement of environmental condition per investment. The water quality at MoolGeum water intake point was modeled to take the effects of the remaining amount of contaminants after treatment and the non-point source contaminants in SamRangJin basin. Using the developed System Dynamics model the effects of the investment for the improvement of environmental condition in SamRangJin basin were compared to the case of alternate water source development for Busan in terms of the degree of satisfaction of the customers on the water supply service in Busan.
Phosphorus is an essential and irreplaceable element for all living organisms and its resource is limited. Significant amount of used phosphorus is collected in sewage treatment plant as sludge. Sludge ash after incineration contains about 10% of phosphorus in dry mass basis, which is comparable to phosphate rocks, and it is an important source of phosphorus recovery. Acid and alkali were used to leach phosphorus from sludge ash and compared for their leaching kinetics and performance. Phosphorus leaching by NaOH was fast and 0.2 N and 2 N NaOH leached 49% and 56% of the total phosphorus in the sludge ash at the L/S ratio of 100. Phosphorus leaching by sulphuric acid and hydrochloric were very fast and most of the phosphorus was leached in 5 minutes. In case of sulphuric acid 95% of the total phosphorus in the sludge ash was leached by 0.2 N at the L/S ratio of 100 and 93% was leached by 1 N at the L/S ratio of 10. 1 N hydrochloric acid leached 99% of the total phosphorus at the L/S ratio of 10. The results showed acids were more effective than alkali for phosphorus leaching from sludge ash and hydrochloric acid leached more phosphorus than sulphuric acid.
In many countries in order to manage corrosion of water treatment process, it is currently using Langelier index (LI). However, management of the Larson's ratio (LR) to compare corrosion management and LI which can be generated by the water treatment process is required. In this study, in order to ensure data LR, factors associated with the actual corrosion resistance of water treatment plant was measured. Using the measured data, the model equation can be estimated alkalinity, and using the statutory water quality data, LR and alkalinity is estimated. At comparison of the measured value and estimated value of alkalinity, it appeared in R2 = 0.629, using the statutory water quality data and estimated alkalinity model, LR and alkalinity (Whole water treatment plants : 472) is estimated. Concentration of estimated alkalinity is 0.5 mg/L to 107.5 mg/L (average : 23.2 mg/L), and LR is 0.1 to 10 (average : 1.3). At tendency to corrosion of investigated LR, “No metal tendency” (>0.5) is 39 water treatment plants, 8.26 %, and “corrosion metal tendency” is 433 water treatment plants, 91.74%.
This study attempts to draw factors for an analysis of the operation effect of a rechlorination facility and autodrain equipment for residual chlorine equalization by installing and operating a rechlorination facility and autodrain equipment in P City and analyzing the practical evaluation method and operation effect. For this purpose, this study selected three indicators for an analysis of the effectiveness of residual chlorine equalization and conducted a comparative analysis before and after the implementation of the residual chlorine equalization. As a result of estimation, ① the reduction of the residual chlorine concentration range from a water treatment plant to the pipe end was 16.0%; ② the total reduction of chlorination input was 18.0%; and ③ the reduction of the generation of disinfection by-products was 19.5%. In addition, this achieved enough residual chlorine equalization in the supply process and shows that it could successfully achieve the economic feasibility of investment in equipment and the reduction of the generation of disinfection by-products. Like this, it is judged that the three indicators suggested in this study will be used sufficiently as indicators of an analysis of the effectiveness of residual chlorine equalization according to the operations of the rechlorination facility and autodrain equipment.
This study was begun with the object of actively reflection the rapid technological advancements of the electronical control and mechanical control industries to sewage disposal methods. Or focuses on applying a flow control method that utilizes inverters and automatic valves to sewage treatment process systems.This study proposes that sewage treatment process systems architects must acquire a certain degree of technical skills in the areas of electrical and mechanical controls in order to raise the standard of completeness of sewage treatment process systems. And further emphasizes that there is required continuous research on automatics valves that are used in sewage treatment.
Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) employ a process of biological treatment that is based on a membrane that has the advantages of producing high-quality treated water and possessing a compact footprint. However, despite these advantages, the occurrence of “fouling” during the operation of these reactors causes the difficulty of maintenance.Hence, in this study, three physical cleaning methods, namely, backwashing, air scrubbing, and mechanical cleaning ball was performed to identify optimum operating conditions through laboratory scale experiments, and apply them in a pilot plant. Further, the existing MBR process was compared with these methods, and the field applicability of a combination of these physical cleaning methods was investigated.Consequently, MCB, direct control of cake fouling on the membrane surface was found to be the most effective. Moreover, as a result of operating with combination of the physical cleaning process in a pilot plant, the TMP increasing rate was found to be – 0.00007 MPa/day, which was 185% higher than that obtained using the existing MBR process. Therefore, assuming fouling only by cake filtration, about one year of operation without chemical cleaning is considered to be feasible through the optimization of the physical cleaning methods.