Gate valves are hydraulic components used to shut-off the water flow in water distribution systems. Gate valves may fail owing to various aspects such as leakage through seats, wearing of packing, and corrosion. Because it is considerably challenging to detect valve malfunctioning until the operator identifies a significant fault, failure of the gate valve may lead to a severe accident event associated with water distribution systems. In this study, we proposed a methodology to diagnose the faults of gate valves. To measure the pressure difference across a gate valve, two pressure transducers were installed before and after the gate valve in a pilot-scaled water distribution system. The obtained time-series pressure difference data were analyzed using a machine learning algorithm to diagnose faults. The validation of whether the flow rate of the pipeline can be predicted based on the pressure difference between the upstream and downstream sides of the valve was also performed.
In this study, sustainable utilization plans were proposed by reviewing the current status and problems of water infrastructure, focusing on water supply and sewage system in Chungcheongnam-do. Due to the regional characteristics of the rural areas in Chungcheongnam-do which has a very low urbanization rate, there is a difference in the level of water welfare services between local governments. Compared to other governments, there are relatively many small water facilities, resulting in a service imbalance in terms of tap water safety. In addition, Chungcheongnam-do has a structure that is very vulnerable to water security to cope with climate change and drought due to its high dependence on wide-area water supply. Therefore, it should be considered in consideration of population reduction and local extinction due to low birth rate and aging population. Rural areas should clearly establish marginal areas for the supply of water and sewage, and implement regional customized water and sewage projects in consideration of local extinction. Water supply projects should be implemented in a distributed water supply method using various water sources. In order to respond to climate change and establish water security, a distributed water supply system should be established through a multi-source water loop system using various water sources. Sewage projects should be establish public sewage treatment facilities in consideration of the priorities of each local government, focusing on local governments with low sewage treatment population rates. In consideration of regional characteristics, it is necessary to consider the installation of private sewage treatment facilities or nature-friendly treatment facilities such as soil infiltration and artificial wetlands. An integrated management system using Internet of Things(IOT) or Information and Communications Technology(ICT) should be established and operated to improve the operation and management efficiency of small-scale water supply and sewage facilities.
The production process of ultra-pure water (UPW) involves dozens of unit processes such as reverse osmosis (RO), pretreatments, membrane degasifier, and several ion exchange processes. Recently, continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) has replaced the 2-bed and 3-tower (2B3T) ion exchange process. As a result, the majority of wastewater in UPW production now comes from the RO concentrate. The important of RO in UPW production is to produce high-quality water with a low ion concentration (around 1 mg/L) for CEDI feed water. Minimizing RO concentrate is essential to reduce the wastewater produced in the UPW production process. This can be achieved by maximizing the recovery of the RO system. However, increasing the recovery is limited by the water quality of the RO permeate. To ensure high-quality permeate water, the RO system is designed with a two-pass configuration. The recovery of each pass in the RO system is limited (e.g., < 85%) due to the expected increase in permeate water concentration at higher RO feed water concentrations. Interestingly, tests using 4-inch RO modules with low concentration feed water (≤ 35 mg/L as NaCl) revealed that the permeate concentration remains almost constant regardless of the feed water concentration. This implies that the recovery of the first RO pass can be increased as long as the average feed/concentrate concentration of the second RO pass is less than 35 mg/L. According to this design criterion for the RO system, the recovery of the first and second RO pass, with a feed water concentration of 250 mg/L as NaCl, can be increased up to 94.8% and 96.0%, respectively. Compared to the conventional RO system design (e.g., 70% and 80% for the first and second RO pass) for UPW production, this maximum recovery design reduces the volume of RO feed and concentrate by up to 38.4% and 89.2%, respectively.
This study focused on using indirect filtration through riverbeds to produce high-quality drinking water. Data on water quality from a water intake facility(capacity 10,000 m3/day) and nearby rivers were collected over a three-year period. The average intake facility specifications were found to be a specific surface area of 58 balls/m2, a mean particle size of 24 mm, an inflow velocity of 2.2 cm/sec, and a burial depth of 5 m. The water quality improvement rate was assessed as grade Ia, surpassing the adjacent river’s water quality. Correlation analysis showed a weak correlation between opening ratio, Suspended Solid (SS), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) compared to total coliforms and fecal coliforms. The correlation coefficient R value of SS was -0.614, BOD was –0.588, total coliforms -0.870, and fecal coliforms -0.958. The R value shows a negative value, which showed that the larger the opening rate, the lower the removal rate of water pollutants. The correlation coefficient R values according to the depth of burial were found to be BOD 0.914, SS-0.124, total coliforms 1.000, and fecal coliforms 0.866. The deeper the burial depth, the higher the removal rate of BOD and microbial groups.