As water resources are limited and legal regulations are strengthened, there is a growing need to reuse residuals in WTP(Water Treatment Plant). In this study, membrane filtration system was constructed and its operation method was studied for water quality stabilization and reuse of WTP residuals. The operation parameters were stable for 1 year and 6 months. Membrane fouling was identified as particulate pollution (activated carbon) and inorganic pollution (manganese). The membrane system was operated steadily with raw water of high concentration SS(Suspended solid) containing activated carbon because membrane fouling was reduced by the effect of End-Free type. In the case of inorganic contamination, dissolved manganese eluted by chemicals and acted as a membrane fouling source, and the operating conditions for minimizing membrane fouling were confirmed by newly developing application methods and types of cleaning chemicals. Based on the results, design parameters for reducing manganese membrane fouling were derived.
In this study, based on the System Dynamics (SD) methodology, the interrelationship between the factors inherent in the operation of the New Technology Certification System (NTCS) in Korea was identified by a causal map containing a feedback loop mechanism in connection with ‘new technology development investment’, ‘commercialization of new technology’, and ‘sales by new technology’. This conceptualized causal map was applied to the simulation of the operations of the New Excellent Technology and Environmental Technology Verification System (NET&ETV) run by the Ministry of Environment among various NTCSs in Korea. A SD computer simulation model was developed to analyze and predict the operational performance of the NET&ETV in terms of key performance indices such as ‘sales by new technology’. Using this model, we predicted the future operational status the NET&ETV and found a policy leverage that greatly influences the operation of the NET&ETV. Also the sensitivity of the key indicators to changes in the external variables in the model was analyzed to find policy leverage.
This study was aimed to examine inorganic fouling and fouling reduction method in direct contact membrane distillation(DCMD) process. Synthetic seawater of NaCl solution with CaCO3 and CaSO4 was used for this purpose. It was found in this study that both CaCO3 and CaSO4 precipitates formed at the membrane surface. More fouling was observed with CaSO4(anhydrite) and CaSO4･0.5H2O(bassanite) than CaSO4･2H2O(gypsum). CaCO3 and gypsum were detected at the membrane surface when concentrates of SWRO(seawater reverse osmosis) were treated by the DCMD process, while gypsum was found with MED(multi effect distillation) concentrates. Air backwash(inside to out) was found more effective in fouling reduction than air scouring.
In this study, a MWCNT(multi-wall carbon nanotube) was added to polysulfone(PSf) support layer to improve flux of TFC(thin film composite) RO(reverse osmosis) membrane. Two different kinds of MWCNT were used. Surfaces of some MWCNTs were modified hydrophilically through acid treatment, while those of other MWCNTs were modified through heat treatment to maintain their hydrophobicity. MWCNT/PSf support layer was prepared by adding PSf to the NMP mixed solvent containing 0.1 wt% MWCNTs using a phase inversion method. The surface porosity of the MWCNT/PSf support increased by 42~46% while its surface pore size being maintained. The TFC RO membrane made of MWCNT/PSf support layer showed a 20% flux increase while its salt rejection characteristics is sustained. In addition, the MWCNT/PSf support layer has better mechanical stability than the PSf support layer, there resulting in an increased resistance of flux reduction due to physical pressure.
This paper suggests a nonlinear pressure consideration scheme through an unsteady pipe network analyzer for leakage detection with a portable pressure wave generator. In order to evaluate the performance of a proposal scheme, linear input pattern has been simulated and experiments had been carried out under both no leakage and one leakage conditions in a reservoir-pipeline-valve system. This method using portable pressure wave generator showed that a leakage can be detected from a reflection where a leakage is originated through time domain analysis. Meaningful similarity in pressure response between nonlinear input pattern and experimental results were found both no leakage and a leakage conditions.
Cured-in-place-pipe(CIPP) is the most adopted trenchless application for sewer rehabilitation to extend the life of the existing sewer without compromising both direct construction and indirect social costs especially applied in the congested urban area. This technology is globally and domestically known to be the most suitable for partial and full deteriorated pipe structure rehabilitation in a sewer system. The typical design of CIPP requires a significant thickness of lining to support loading causing sewage flow interruption and increasing material cost. This paper presents development of a high strength glass fiber composite lining material for the CIPP application and structural test results. The test results exhibit that the new glass fiber composite lining material has 12 times of flexural strength, 6.2 times of flexural modulus, and 0.5 Creep Retention Factor. These test results can reduce lining design thickness 35% at minimum. Even though taking into consideration extra materials such as outer and inner films for actual field applications, the structural capacity of the composite material significantly increases and it reduces 20 percent or more line thickness as compared to the conventional CIPP. We expect that the newly developed CIPP lining material lowers material costs and minimizes flow capacity reduction, and fully replaceable to the conventional CIPP lining materials.