Surge pressure is created by rapid change of flow rate due to operation of hydraulic component or accident of pipeline. Proper control of surge pressure in distribution system is important because it can damage pipeline and may have the potential to degrade water quality by pipe leakage due to surge pressure. Surge relief valve(SRV) is one of the most widely used devices and it is important to determine proper parameters for SRV’s installation and operation. In this research, determining optimum parameters affecting performance of the SRV were investigated. We proposed the methodology for finding combination of parameters for best performance of the SRV. Therefore, the objective function for evaluate fitness of candidate parameters and surge pressure simulation software was developed to validate proposed parameters for SRV. The developed software was integrated into genetic algorithm(GA) to find best combination of parameters.
Most of existing buried pipes are composed of reinforced concrete. Reinforced concrete pipes have many problems such as aging, corrosion, leaking, etc. The polyethylene (PE) pipes have advantages to solve these problems. The plastic pipes buried underground are classified into a flexible pipe. National standard that has limited the long-term vertical deformation of the pipe to 5% for flexible pipes including PE pipe. This study presents a prediction for the long-term behavior of the polyethylene pipe based on ASTM D 5365. This prediction method is presented to estimate by using the statistical method from the initial deflection measurement data. We predict the behavior of long-term performance on the double-wall pipe and multi-wall pipe. As a result, it was found that the PE pipe will be sound enough more than 50 years if the compaction of soil around the pipe is more than 95% of the standard soil compaction density.
Relatively low efficiency in anaerobic digestion process is mainly caused by unproper mixing method. In this study, tray motion type agitator was applied in actual anaerobic digestion tank in order to improve the digestion efficiency, equalize the flow velocity distribution and energy saving. The impeller of tray motion type agitator was reciprocated vertically. Gas lift type agitator and tray motion type agitator appears almost same mixing efficiency include digestion rates. However, tray motion type agitator have shown that lower energy consumption compared to the conventional gas lift type agitator. Implementation of tray motion type agitator in the anaerobic digestion tanks contributed to the stabilization of mixing environment, efficiency and energy efficiency of the tank.
This study was performed to propose the sewer defect scoring, and grading protocols for sewer condition assessment. For this, sewer defect scoring methods were comparatively analyzed and reviewed for four international condition assessment protocols, which are established based on WRc manual. As a result, we proposed a new protocol for sewer condition assessment, in which characteristics of sewer pipes are considered by segment. In reference to the PIM-3, the extent of ground subsidence was adopted to be of importance, and renewal scores increased in accordance with weighting of defects causing structural backfill materials. Also, defect grades of ‘Hole’ were extended to 5 levels of the grading, and ‘Surface Damage’ was excluded in defect assessment. The addition of ‘Buckling’ resulted in reduction of weights in ‘Surface Damage’ and ‘Lining Defects’.
To estimate pollution sources in the watershed with various industries, the simulation of contamination route and distribution of 2-methyl-4,6-dinitriophenol(DNOC) were performed with a numerical model Hydro Geo Sphere. This study was performed calculations of the load using the measured concentration and simulated flow rate. And, the river was divided by the sampling sites at the mainstream, and the contribution rate at downstream sampling sites was calculated for each section. The results showed the concentration of the downstream sampling sites were decided by the concentration of upstream sites, and the contribution rates of the tributaries were calculated below 10%. The results also showed that the impact of the potential sources in Section 1(Geumho1 ~ Geumho2) and Section 5(Geumho5 ~ Geumho6) was larger than in the other area. In Section1 and Section5, It seemed to require detailed investigation.
In the coagulation/sedimentation (C/S) process of the water treatment process, the inflow of massive algal bloom causes many problems including fouling of filter media. This study was conducted to find out the way to remove the algae’s harmful effects by addition of pre-treatment prior to C/S process. Many Jar-tests were conducted such as ① ACF (Algae Coagulation·Flotation) process using natural algae coagulant (Water Health®), ② ACF + C/S process and ③ C/S process with a variety of conditions using cultured algae. The average values of turbidity were ① 0.42 NTU for ACF process, ② 0.13 NTU for ACF + C/S process and ③ 0.25 NTU for C/S process. It was shown that the treatment efficiency of ACF process could get low turbidity results, and ACF + C/S process could achieve more efficient results than those of C/S process. Any negative effects of ACF process to the efficiency of C/S process were not observed in ACF + C/S process. In order to reduce the unfavorable effects of algae, it was found out that the introduction of ACF process in the forms of ① ACF or ② ACF + C/S could be one of the effective and alternative solutions.
For the asset management of a water pipe network, it would be necessary to understand the extent of the maintenance cost required for the water pipe network for the future. This study would develop a method to draw the optimum cost required for the maintenance of the water pipe network in waterworks facilities to maintain the aim revenue water ratio and to achieve the target revenue water ratio, considering the water service providers’ waterworks condition and revenue water ratio comprehensively. This study conducted a survey with 96 water service providers as of the early 2015 and developed models to estimate the optimum maintenance cost of the water pipe network, considering the characteristics of the water service providers. Since the correlation coefficient of all the developed models was higher than 0.95, it turned out that it had significant reliability, which was statistically significant. As a result of applying the developed models to the actual water service providers, it was drawn that increasing revenue water ratio to more than a certain level can reduce the maintenance cost of the water pipe network by a great deal. In other words, it is judged that it would be the most efficient to secure the reliability of waterworks management by increasing the short-term revenue water ratio to more than a certain level and gradually increase the revenue water ratio from the long-term perspective. It is expected that the proposed methodology proposed in this study and the results of the study will be used as a basic research for planning the maintenance of water pipe network or establishing a plan for waterworks facilities asset management.
For economic evaluation of integrated operation to sewage facilities, benefit-cost analysis was performed to watershed sewage works project in 7 watershed areas, 156 facilities. In this study, the cost before and after integrated operation was compared and benefits are calculated from the reduction of operators, increasement treated pollution loads, reduction cost through operation convenience, reduction water consumption through effluent reuse, and improvement of life benefit. The result showed that cost was 8,500million won and benefit was 16,747million won, so benefit was 49% higher than cost. B/C analysis result showed that B/C ratio was 1.97 and it is similar to other researches. The benefits of integrated operation included convenience of data management, increase of emergency response, decrease of complains with sewage which was not reflected numerically, so the benefits of integrated operation were expected much greater than this result.
The UV/chlorine process is a UV-based advanced oxidation process for removing various organic pollutants in water. The process is becoming increasingly popular because of its effectiveness in practice. It is important to the safe and efficient operation of a UV/chlorine process that the optimal operating conditions for both target removal objective and saving energy are determined. Treatment efficiency of target compounds in UV/chlorine process was mainly affected by pH and scavenging factor. In this study, kinetic based mathematical model considering water characteristics and electrical energy dose calculations model was developed to predict of treatment efficiency and optimal operating conditions. The model equation was validated for the UV/chlorine process at the laboratory scale and in pilot tests at water treatment plants.
This study analyzed the correlation between Chl-a and water quality factors using characteristics of climate data, water quality factors, and various statistical analysis techniques during the summer season in the Nakdong River during the 2-year period. The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for establishing water quality management policy in the Changnyeong-Haman weir section. From the end of July to the middle of August when algae mainly occur, both the years 2015 and 2016 are in the temperature range of 25 ~ 30 °C, and the total precipitation of 2015 is less than that of 2016 in this period. As a result of comparing the concentration of Chl-a, the average Chl-a concentration of 2015 was higher than that of 2016, which seems to be related to the total precipitation in the occurrence of algae. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the correlation with PO4-P was significant at most points. As a result of the factor analysis, the first principal factor group classified PO4-P, NH3-N, TP, pH, flow rate, TN and this section seems to be influenced by phosphorus and nitrogen and flow rate.
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the number of cyanobacterial species and the water quality factors after installation of Nakdong river weirs. Factor analyses of water quality factors were also performed. The results of correlations showed that there was no significant water quality with the cyanobacterial concentration but the correlation coefficient of nutrients increased from the upstream to the downstream. There was a significant correlation between W·T and pH as important water quality factors for the growth of cyanobacteria. In the downstream region of Nakdong river, algae were more frequently detected than in the upstream region, and the blooms of algae species seem to be influenced by the higher pH and the influx of the phosphorus from the upstream tributaries. Nutrient concentration was higher in the downstream region than in the upstream region due to the effects of tributaries Geumho river and Nam river in Nakdong river. As a result of the factor analyses, nitrogen species were the principal factors in the upper region, and phorsphorus species were the principal factors in the downstream region.
A membrane bioreactor by sequentially alternating the inflow and by applying a two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation was evaluated in terms of phosphorus removal efficiency and cost-savings. The MBR consisted of two identical alternative reaction tanks, followed by aerobic, anoxic and membrane tanks, where the wastewater and the internal return sludge alternatively flowed into each alternative reaction tank at every 2 hours. In the batch-operated alternative reaction tank, the initial concentration of nitrate rapidly decreased from 2.3 to 0.4 mg/L for only 20 minutes after stopping the inflow, followed by substantial release of phosphorus up to 4 mg/L under anaerobic condition. Jar test showed that the minimum alum doses to reduce the initial PO4-P below 0.2 mg/L were 2 and 9 mol-Al/mol-P in the wastewater and the activated sludge from the membrane tank, respectively. It implies that a pre-coagulation in influent is more cost-efficient for phosphorus removal than the coagulation in the bioreactor. On the result of NUR test, there were little difference in terms of denitrification rate and contents of readily biodegradable COD between raw wastewater and pre-coagulated wastewater. When adding alum into the aerobic tank, alum doses above 26 mg/L as Al2O3 caused inhibitory effects on ammonia oxidation. Using the two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation, the P concentration in the MBR effluent was kept below 0.2 mg/L with the alum of 2.7 mg/L as Al2O3, which was much lower than 5.1∼7.4 mg/L as Al2O3 required for typical wastewater treatment plants. During the long-term operation of MBR, there was no change of the TMP increase rate before and after alum addition.