ODA finance in the water sector has decreased after reaching a peak in 2012 although total ODA commitments have steadily increased according to OECD DAC data. However, climate finance in the water sector has increased so much since 2013 according to 7 MDB Joint report on Climate Finance. Water, especially, in climate change is the main issue for adaptation, and the total finance in the water sector reached 50% of the international public adaptation finance in 2016. However, the procedures for approval and the requirements of the proposals for climate funds are different from those for development finance. Notwithstanding the changes in money flows in the water sector, most korean engineering consulting firms in the water infrastructure area are not ready to win the funds relating to climate change. Therefore, It is important to understand a variety of sources of climate funds, characteristics, funding scale on each purpose and procedures for approval. Korean government needs to provide the firms the opportunities to buildup experiences by getting involved in climate adaptation projects with the financial support for developing PPFs, concept notes, and proposals.
Although membrane bio-reactor (MBR) has been widely applied for wastewater treatment plants, the membrane fouling problems are still considered as an obstacle to overcome. Thus, many studies and commercial developments on mitigating membrane fouling in MBR have been carried out. Recently, high voltage impulse (HVI) has gained attention for a possible alternative technique for desalting, non-thermal sterilization, bromate-free disinfection and mitigation of membrane fouling. In this study, it was verified if the HVI could be used for mitigation of membrane fouling, particularly the internal pore fouling in MBR. The HVI was applied to the fouled membrane under different conditions of electric fields (E) and contact time (t) of HVI in order to investigate how much of internal pore fouling was reduced. The internal pore fouling resistance (Rf) after HVI induction was reduced as both E and t increased. For example, Rf decreased by 19% when the applied E was 5 kV/cm and t was 80 min. However, the Rf decreased by 71% as the E increased to 15 kV/cm under the same contact time. The correlation between E and t that needed for 20% of Rf reduction was modeled based on kinetics. The model equation, E1.54t = 1.2 × 103 was obtained by the membrane filtration data that were obtained with and without HVI induction. The equation states the products of En and t is always constant, which means that the required contact time can be reduced in accordance with the increase of E.
This study is to improve the efficiency of BTL (Build Transfer Lease) project operation by comparing the infiltration rate based on the data of 5 years of infiltration of the separate sewer system and combined sewer system. In the survey site, the separate sewer system area consists of eight flowmeters in seven treatment basins, and the combined sewer system area consists of eight flowmeters in five treatment basins. The infillration rate was analyzed by night-time domestic flow evaluation method, and the average infiltration rates of the separate sewer system and combined sewer system were 13% and 16%, respectively. Combined sewer system was about 1.3 times higher than the separate sewer system. The average BOD of separate sewer system was 233 mg/L, which was about 2.4 times higher than the combined sewer system was 107 mg/L. In the comparison of the average pipe diameter-length infiltration of separate sewer system and combined sewer system, the separate sewer system and the combined sewer system were about 0.150 m3/d/mm/km and about 0.109 m3/d/mm/km, respectively. The floating population in mixed residential and commercial areas has been identified as the cause. Therefore, we propose a method to calculate the infiltration rate in consideration of the margin ratio in the area where the night active population is concentrated.
2 (Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich) and 3 (Sips and Redlich-Peterson)-parameter isotherm models were applied to evaluated for the applicability of adsorption of Cu(II) and/or phosphate isotherm using chitosan bead. Non-linear and linear isotherm adsorption were also compared on each parameter with coefficient of determination (R2). Among 2-parameter isotherms, non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm showed relatively higher R2 and appropriate maximum uptake (qm) than other isotherm equation although linear Dubinin-Radushkevich obtained highest R2. 3-parameter isotherm model demonstrated more reasonable and accuracy results than 2-parmeter isotherm in both non-linear and linear due to the addition of one parameter. The linearization for all of isotherm equation did not increase the applicability of adsorption models when error experiment data was included.
When domestic sewage and rainwater runoff are discharged into a single sewer pipe, it is called a “combined sewer system.” The sewage design standards in Korea specify the flow velocity based only on the volume of rainfall; therefore, sedimentation occurs on non-rainy days owing to the reduced flow rate and velocity. This sedimentation reduces the discharge capacity, causes unpleasant odors, and exacerbates the problem of combined sewer overflow concentration. To address this problem, the amount of sewage on non-rainy days, not just the volume of rainfall, should also be considered. There are various theories on sedimentation in sewer movement. This study introduces a self-cleansing velocity based on tractive force theory. By applying a self-cleansing velocity equivalent to the critical shear stress of a sand particle, sedimentation can be reduced on non-rainy days. The amount of sewage changes according to the water use pattern of citizens. The design hourly maximum wastewater flow was considered as a representative value, and the velocity of this flow should be more than the self-cleansing velocity. This design method requires a steeper gradient than existing design criteria. Therefore, the existing sewer pipelines need to be improved and repaired accordingly. In this study, five types of improvement and repair methods that can maximize the use of existing pipelines and minimize the depth of excavation are proposed. The key technologies utilized are trenchless sewer rehabilitation and complex cross-section pipes. Trenchless sewer rehabilitation is a popular sewage repair method. However, it is complex because the cross-section pipes do not have a universal design and require continuous research and development. In an old metropolis with a combined sewer system, it is difficult to carry out excavation work; hence, the methods presented in this study may be useful in the future.
In actual seawater desalination plant, the pressure loss due to frictional force of pipe is about 3~5 bar. Also, the pressure loss at pipe connection about 1~3 bar. Therefore, the total pressure loss in the pipe is expected to be about 4~8 bar, which translates into 0.111 to 0.222 kWh/m3 of energy when converted into the Specific Energy Consumption(SEC). Reducing energy consumption is the most important factor in ensuring the economics of seawater desalination processes, but pressure loss in piping is often not considered in plant design. It is difficult to prevent pressure loss due to friction inside the pipe, but pressure loss at the pipe connection can be reduced by proper pipe design. In this study, seawater desalination plant piping analysis was performed using a commercial network program. The pressure loss and SEC for each case were calculated and compared by seawater desalination plant size.