The coda /s/ is the most extensively studied phonological segment in Hispanic dialectology and sociolinguistics. However, the coda /s/ in Peruvian Andean Spanish has received relatively little attention. This study examines the variation in syllables and word-final /s/ in the city of Cusco, Peru. The statistical analysis of 2400 tokens from 24 sociolinguistic interviews reveals that the Spanish of Cusco is located within the conservative dialects with the predominant use of the sibilant [s] and that coda /s/ weakening is conditioned by linguistic factors, such as word position and the following phonological context. Additionally, younger speakers and those who have higher levels of education weaken codal /s/ more frequently than older generations and speakers with lower levels of education.
Water disinfection using UV-LED(Light emitting diode) has many advantages, such as smaller footprint and power consumption as well as relatively longer lifespan than those of conventional mercury-UV lamps. Moreover, UV-LED disinfection is considered an environmentally benign process due to its mercury-free nature. In this study, disinfection using an LED module emitting 275nm UV was carried out. 384 UV-LEDs were put into a cylinder tube with a capacity of 1.7 liters. The UV intensity of the UV-LED module was controlled from 1.7 to 8.4 mW/cm2. The disinfection efficiency for the model microorganism solutions(E. coli ) was monitored. As the UV intensity(I) and contact time(t) varied, inactivation of the microorganisms from 2 to 4-log-removals(i.e., 99 to 99.99% of disinfection efficiency) was achieved. Disinfection using UV-LED was followed to 1st order reaction and the reaction rate constant, k was determined. In addition, the relationship between UV intensity(I) and contact time(t) in order to obtain 99.99% of disinfection efficiency was modeled: I1.2∙𝑡= 460, which indicates that the product of UV intensity and contact time requiring 4-log-removals is always constant.
This paper examines the variation of the intervocalic /b, d, g/ in the Spanish spoken in one of the Andean Spanish varieties. One of the regional phonological features that characterize the Andean Spanish is the use of occlusive [b, d, g] in intervocalic positions where other standard varieties would favor approximate variants [ß, ð, ɣ]. This research provides the first quantitative study on the linguistic and extra-linguistic factors influencing the use of [b, d, g] in Andean Spanish. A total of 4,080 tokens from 24 speakers in the Tupe district were analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis with Goldvarb X. The results show that the most important extra-linguistic factors are speakers’ gender and age, with old female speakers producing significantly more occlusive [b, d, g] than other speakers. The results also indicate that the speakers are standardizing their use of /b, d, g/ but its process is quite different between the male and female speakers.
Although membrane bio-reactor (MBR) has been widely applied for wastewater treatment plants, the membrane fouling problems are still considered as an obstacle to overcome. Thus, many studies and commercial developments on mitigating membrane fouling in MBR have been carried out. Recently, high voltage impulse (HVI) has gained attention for a possible alternative technique for desalting, non-thermal sterilization, bromate-free disinfection and mitigation of membrane fouling. In this study, it was verified if the HVI could be used for mitigation of membrane fouling, particularly the internal pore fouling in MBR. The HVI was applied to the fouled membrane under different conditions of electric fields (E) and contact time (t) of HVI in order to investigate how much of internal pore fouling was reduced. The internal pore fouling resistance (Rf) after HVI induction was reduced as both E and t increased. For example, Rf decreased by 19% when the applied E was 5 kV/cm and t was 80 min. However, the Rf decreased by 71% as the E increased to 15 kV/cm under the same contact time. The correlation between E and t that needed for 20% of Rf reduction was modeled based on kinetics. The model equation, E1.54t = 1.2 × 103 was obtained by the membrane filtration data that were obtained with and without HVI induction. The equation states the products of En and t is always constant, which means that the required contact time can be reduced in accordance with the increase of E.
휴전국인 우리나라는 의무복무제도를 시행하고 있다. 이에 취업 및 진학을 한 20대 초반의 사회 초년생은 군 입대 문제로 많은 고민과 큰 걱정을 하고 있다. 이에 군에 대한 부정적인 인식과 군 생활 적응은 사회가 같이 풀어야 할 문제이다. 따라서 방송사 등 문제 해결을 위해 다각적으로 노력하고 있으나 역부족이다. 실제 군 입대 후 스트레스 및 불안정 심리상태의 장병 비중이 높다. 따라서 본 연구는 군 생활에서 일상적인 방법을 통해 스트레스, 불안감을 감소시키고, 집중력을 향상 시키고자 실행하였다. 주의 집중력 증가 및 스트레스, 불안감의 변화를 측정하기 위해 SMR파 대역의 주파수를 직접 노출시킨 실험군과 그렇지 않은 대조군으로 실험을 진행하였다. 실험군과 대조군대한 대응표본 t-검정 결과는 신뢰수준 95%에서 t=2.487, p=0.042로 유의차가 인정되었다. 즉, 가상사격영상에서 특정 주파수를 제시한 실험군의 피실험자들이 스트레스 및 불안정 심리의 완화효과가 발생하였다. 본 실험의 결과를 활용하면 젊은 장병들의 군 생활 적응에 효과가 높은 것으로 사료된다. 추후 연구에서는 심전도와 뇌파의 상관관계의 확인이 필요하다.
본 연구는 운전 중 외부 소음으로 유발된 스트레스를 줄이기 위한 방법으로 심박변화율의 상관관계 분석의 선행연구와 음원의 주파수에서 운전자로 하여금 안정상태를 유발하는 음악과 소음 발생 시 심전도의 변화가 있는 지의 여부를 규명하기 위한 목적이다. 매년 자동차의 증가로 인하여 운전자 및 동승자가 외부 소음으로부터 스트레스가 증가하는 추세이다. 자동차 운전 시 외부 소음에 의한 스트레스는 불안, 면역약화, 우울, 심장 질환 등 여러 가지 질병을 일으키고 있다. 따라서 외부 소음으로부터 스트레스를 줄이기 위한 자동차 시뮬레이터를 실시하여 여러 가지 청각 자극을 주어 운전자가 반응하는 연구를 진행하였다. RM-ANOVA (Repeated Measures-ANOVA) 통계분석 결과, 집단별 유의차가 인정되었다(ρ<0.05). 사후 검정을 통해 어떤 요인 간의 차이가 발생하는지를 알아보았다. 사후검정 결과는 요인1(안정) 과 요인2(시뮬레이션운전), 요인1(안정)과 요인3(운전+경찰사이렌), 요인1(안정)과 요인4(운전+경찰사이렌+음악)에서 유의한 차이를 발견할 수 있었다. 또한, 교감신경계 활성도가 가장 높은 집단은 운전+경찰사이렌+음악을 실시한 요인 4이며, 다음으로 운전+경찰사이렌인 요인 3이며, 다음으로 운전을 실시한 요인 2, 마지막으로 안정기 순으로 나타났다. 결론적으로 운전 중 경찰 사이렌 소리를 들려주어도 심전도의 변화는 유의차가 인정되지 않았다. 또한, 사이렌 소리에 안정된 주파수의 음악을 들려주어도 심전도의 변화에 차이가 발생하지 않았다(ρ<0.01). 향후 연구에서는 운전 중 심전 도의 안정을 찾을 수 있는 여러 가지 음악을 들려주어서 심전도가 안정화되는 음악을 찾는 연구방법이 선행되어야 할 것이다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid weight reduction for short duration
on serum enzyme and stress hormone in high school wrestlers. Subjects were composed of 7 student wrestlers whose wrestling careers were 3years over. Subjects were reduced 5% of their body weight by exercise, reducing food and sauna method for three days. On the basis of the results analyzed in this study and consideration of many pre studies related it, the result could be drawn as follows. First, Data analysis of 5% weight reduction on CPK, post level revealed more significant increase than pre level(p<.05). Second, Data analysis of 5% weight reduction on LDH, post level revealed more significant increase than pre level(p<.05). Data analysis of 5% weight reduction on Epinephrine, post level revealed more significant decrease than pre level(p<.05). Data analysis of 5% weight reduction on Norepinephrine, post level revealed more significant increase than pre level(p<.05). In conclusion, rapid weight reduction gives an effects on decreasing wrestlers' physical fitness suddenly during the match because of changing rapidly of serum enzyme and stress hormone in the body. I hope that more studies will be followed on serum enzyme and stress hormone in rapid weight reduction of weight class competition players in the future.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined exercise training during
12weeks on physical fitness, body composition and bone mineral density in university students.
Nineteen male university students who were enrolled of 1st grade at department of physical
education in Korea National University of Education were participated in this experiment. Subjects
were performed combined exercise training - running, physical training using plyometrics and
resistance training - of 5days per week, 70min per 1 time, during 12weeks. The measurement items were health related fitness(muscle strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility), motor skill fitness(power, balance), body composition(% body fat, muscle mass) and bone mineral density(T-score). On the basis of the results analyzed in this study and consideration of many pre studies related it, the result were as follows. First, data analysis of 12 week combined exercise training on health related fitness, post level was revealed more significant increase than pre level at muscle strength(p<.05), muscular endurance(p<.05), cardiovascular endurance(p<.001) and flexibility(p<.05). Second, data analysis of 12 week combined exercise training on motor skill fitness, It was not revealed significant differences between the pre and the post level of the power and balance). Third, data analysis of 12 week combined exercise training on body composition, post level revealed more significant improvement than pre level at muscle mass(p<.05), but It was not revealed significant differences between the pre and the post level of the % body fat. Fourth, data analysis of 12 week
combined exercise training on bone mineral density, post level revealed more significant improvement than pre level at T-score(p<.05). In conclusion, It was revealed that 12 week combined exercise training increased physical fitness, and improved body composition and bone mineral density. I hope that more studies will be followed on physical fitness, body composition and bone mineral density on various exercise types, exercise intensity, time and frequency in university students in the future.
The present study was conducted to compare on embryo survival rates by blastomere isolation methods, and establish the optimal PCR procedure for perform the sexing of bovine blastocysts produced by IVF. IVF embryos used in the study was used the Bisected or Sliced methods for blastomere isolation, and the survival rates of blastocyst with rapid way of sexing PCR was assessed. In the present study for survival rates in blastocyst was the total cleavage rate was 75% and a blastocyst development among cleaved embryos was 40%. Survival rate of embryos treated with intact, bisected or sliced method was 100, 63.3 or 81.3%, respectively. Therefore, survival rate of embryos treated with sliced method was higher compared to that of embryos treated with bisected method. The sexing rate of female or male was not significantly different between S4BFBR primer and BSY + BSP primer (1.75 : 1 vs. 1.43 : 1), respectively. Because of the PCR amplification using the S4BFBR primer was simpler method than multiplex PCR amplification method. Furthermore, the accuracy of sexing rate and reduction of PCR work time between 2-step and 3-step of PCR methods was 98.0% / 1.5 hr and 97.0% / 3.5 hr, respectively. Based on these results, it can be suggested that the sliced and PCR methods we developed was very effective method to reduce time consuming and procedure of PCR amplification for sexing with the increase of survival rate on the blastocyst.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on % body
fat and insulin resistance in obese middle school male students. Subjects were composed of 20
students(exercise training group: 10, control group: 10, body
이 연구는 자율체육활동 체험교실이 학생들에게 미치는 영향을 학교생활 만족도로 분석하기 위한 것으로, 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위해 경기도 소재 G시 자율체육 체험교실을 운영하고 있는 4개 학교의 4개의 자율체육 체험교실 5,6학년 학생 250명을 연구대상으로 선정하였고, 각 학교에서 자율체육 체험교실에 참여하는 학생 65명과 참여하지 않는 학생 65명을 연구대상으로 선정하였다. 연구도구로는 선행연구에서 사용된 문항을 사용하였으며 회수된 설문지는 SPSS 22.0을 사용, 집단 간 및 집단 내의 차이 및 동질성 검증을 위해 독립표본 t-test와 대응표본 t-test를 실시했다. 이러한 연구 방법 및 자료 분석 결과를 토대로 얻어진 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 자율체육활동 체험교실 참여 전후의 만족도를 살펴보면 하위 요인인 교우관계, 교사관계, 학습활동, 규칙준수의 요인에서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이가 나타났다. 둘째, 자율체육 체험교실 참여 여부에 따른 학교 생활 만족도를 분석해 보면 교우관계, 교사관계, 학습활동에서 통계적으로 유의미한 결과가 나타 났다. 셋째, 자율체육 체험교실 참여 학생의 성별에 따른 학교생활 만족도를 분석한 결과 학습활동에서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이를 보였다. 넷째, 자율체육 체험교실 참여 학생의 주변 환경에 따른 학교생활 만족도를 분석하면 학습활동에서 통계적으로 유의미한 차이가 나타났다.