This paper examines the variation of the intervocalic /b, d, g/ in the Spanish spoken in one of the Andean Spanish varieties. One of the regional phonological features that characterize the Andean Spanish is the use of occlusive [b, d, g] in intervocalic positions where other standard varieties would favor approximate variants [ß, ð, ɣ]. This research provides the first quantitative study on the linguistic and extra-linguistic factors influencing the use of [b, d, g] in Andean Spanish. A total of 4,080 tokens from 24 speakers in the Tupe district were analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis with Goldvarb X. The results show that the most important extra-linguistic factors are speakers’ gender and age, with old female speakers producing significantly more occlusive [b, d, g] than other speakers. The results also indicate that the speakers are standardizing their use of /b, d, g/ but its process is quite different between the male and female speakers.
This article starts with a thought that the ideas of ‘Eol’(soul) and ‘Gugeo’(national language) presuppose each other. Given that ancient history was the place of struggle in which the desires of a modern nation-state were projected, national language was an important tool of the struggle for nationalist historians such as Shin Chaeho and Jeong Inbo, who attempted to reveal the reality of ancient history. At the same time, the history of national language could only be established based on national history. In order to take a critical look at this entangling of ‘national history’ and ‘national language’, this article analyzed Jeong Inbo's “Joseon's Eol of 5,000 Years”. Chapter 2 examines the specific aspects of the linguistic methodology Jeong Inbo used in “Joseon's Eol of 5,000 Years” and its status in his research on Korean history. Chapter 3 reviews Jeong Inbo's approach to describing ancient history, which introduced a linguistic methodology, in the academic context of the time and show that it was an important tendency of ‘Joseonhak’(Korean Studies) that sought to eventually find "Something true to Korea." Chapter 4 examines the correlation between the ideas of ‘Eol’ and ‘Gugeo’, which originated from ‘Guksu’ and ‘Gukon’.
The purpose of this study is to provide data for effective immigration policy by investigating the factors that influence Korean citizen’s expectations for the Korean language proficiency of foreigners who seek Korean citizenship. The factors that influence these expectations are Korean citizen’s sense of national identity, multicultural receptivity, and preference for type of social integration. To summarize the results, first, Korean women showed stronger preferences for foreigners being required to demonstrate their Korean proficiency level when compared to their male counterparts. Second, there was a difference in multicultural receptivity of Korean citizens according to academic background, with higher education levels trending with higher rates of multicultural acceptance. Third, when the civic factor, a sub-factor of national identity perception, was high, the preference for foreigners to prove higher Korean language proficiency was also higher. Fourth, if multicultural receptivity was high, the preference for foreigners to demonstrate high levels of Korean language proficiency increased. Fifth, among social integration types, those who favored assimilationism reported significantly higher preferences for demonstration of Korean proficiency. Sixth, the level of Korean language proficiency expected of those who acquired Korean citizenship was 30% for beginner level and 50% for intermediate level.
This study embraces the viewpoint that intercultural sensitivity can be efficiently increased by accepting the communication behaviors(CB) of different groups which are closely related to the components of world views. This study is to examine the CB of North Korean refugees with South Korean people in terms of intercultural sensitivity. It surveyed six North Korean refugees who could share their broad experience of CB. The results show that the participants experienced harsh communication behaviors caused by the dichotomous views, and the stereotypes due to the political impact in denial and defense stages of ethnocentrism. Although the CB based on human empathy in minimization stage was experienced, this situation was made when they tried concealing their origin or putting down their self-esteem. Also, in this stage their revealing the North Korean way of CB inadvertently caused misunderstandings and conflicts. Finally, based on the research findings, this study suggests some ways to accept the CB of North Korean refugees in terms of increasing intercultural sensitivity.
The objective of this study is to analyze and interpret the features of Koreans’ perception of retirement and their retirement greeting expressions by age and gender through a survey based on the field research at the retirement ceremonies. A study on the perception was conducted, and the result is as follows: 33.10% of the respondents consider retirement a matter of congratulation, 30.50% consolation and encouragement, and 36.4% a way of congratulation, consolation and encouragement. In particular, those who think that retirement is a matter of congratulation preferred to say, “You have worked hard and I appreciate it(39~39%)”, “Thank you for your hard work(34~36%)”, and “other messages(25~26%)” regardless of age and gender. Also, those who consider that retirement is a matter of consolation and encouragement said, “Thank you for your hard work(48~57%)”, nothing(32~38%)”, or other messages(2~16%) regardless of age and gender. In addition, those who think the retirement is a matter of congratulation, consolation and encouragement, they showed similar patterns with the other two cases although there were some differences in terms of frequency. However, the retirement greeting expressions proposed by the Chosun Ilbo, the National Academy of the Korean Language (1991: 363), and the National Institute of the Korean Language (2011: 209) were based on the case that retirement were a matter of congratulation only. Hence, this study suggests that messages for retirement need their revision and supplementation, and related institutions should take it seriously and publish a new ‘standard language etiquette’.
The purpose of this s tudy is to analyz e the COVID-19 political discourse from the perspective of critical discourse analysis, to identify what linguistic strategies politicians use to reveal their position and ideologies, and how the social and political situations are reflected in their discourse. The data consist of speeches made by Donald Trump, the former U.S. president, and Andrew Cuomo, the governor of New York, in terms of text, discourse practice, and sociocultural practice using Fairclough’s 3D model. The findings show that the two politicians used terms that separate ‘us-group’ and ‘them-group’, while showing differences in specific vocabulary choices and discourse composition strategies. Trump tended to use positive self-presentation, optimistic expressions, and focused on economic policies, while Cuomo tended to use objective figures, emphasize seriousness, and focus on prevention policies. This forms the way the public perceives society, and conversely, social situations such as racial discrimination and hate issues also affect and interact with discourse strategies.
This study discusses the representation of women and the use of discriminatory language expressions regarding them in movies. This study analyzed female characters and the language expressions used in relation to these female characters in the films between 2014 and 2019. Considering features of each character, the following types of discrimination were observed: “treating women as sexual objects” and “subordinating wife to husband” on the subject of right and violence, “treating women as men’s subordinates” for labor and in positions of leaderships, “excluding women” in terms of race and disabilities, “restricting women to gender-specific roles such as housewives” in motherhood and image of women, and “treating women’s behavior or personality differently’ in abilities and occupations. In the result of discriminatory language expressions, “degrading of women” was most frequently observed. And “treating women’s behavior or personality differently” was observed in few movies, exhibiting the lowest frequency. “Treating women as subordinates to men” and “excluding women” were expressions of discrimination in public spheres against social advancement, and “restricting women to gender-specific roles such as housewives” and “subordinating wife to husband” can be considered expressions of patriarchy.
In the contrasting reports of the THAAD deployment in South Korea, the conflicting national media stances are reflected in the discursive patterns of the Chinese and Korean newspapers' headlines. Grounded upon van Dijk's socio-cognitive perspective in the critical discourse analysis, these patterns are analyzed in terms of the Attitude systems of the Appraisal Theory. The data of headlines are collected from online articles in Chinese and Korean major daily newspapers. The findings show that the newspapers' contrasting stances on the THAAD issues are discursively differentiated into their attitudinal representations of the headlines. These results also demonstrate the discursive strategy of positive self and negative other presentation to establish each nation's solidarity involved in the THAAD issues.
The purpose of this study is to examine children's YouTube contents that intensively show the characteristics of a promotional society from the perspective of critical discourse studies. This starts to view of the concept of discourse as ‘use of language in a social context’. Discourse can be approached in terms of texts, discourse practices, and sociocultural practices. And the analysis was carried out within the dialectical relationship of these three dimensions. Children's YouTube discourse superficially pursues an entertainment genre, but has the characteristics of an advertising genre. The discourse practice of YouTube text makes it natural to watch a commercial presented before watching main contents. In addition, it commercializes play activities between parents and children in the home domain. Representing ‘play’ and ‘home’ at the text level as excessively abundant goods is related to ‘discourse on happiness through material’. In terms of discourse practices, the value of the play activities of parents and children as media products, and the guarantee of (advertising) viewing act for consumption of these texts, is based on the characteristics of the promotion and consumption society. Capturing the ideology of fetishism that penetrates these three dimensions contributes to the recognition of the act of watching as labor.
We examined how North Korean refugees (NKRs) residing in South Korea and South Korean natives (SKs) perceive expressive speech act with message-oriented utterances and relationship-oriented utterances. Unlike most previous literature, we focused on the pragmatic heterogeneity and illustrated possible pragmatic failures that NKRs may encounter in South Korea. The 47-SKs and 43-NKRs responded to the survey with videoclips that shows combinations of the speech acts (thanking, compliment/response, and apology) and the utterance type (message-oriented and relationship-oriented). Each video entails three survey questions asking for participant's perception of conversations and their evaluation on the speaker's personality. The analysis revealed that SKs' perception of relationship-oriented utterances is more positive than NKRs. Also, NKRs' evaluations did not change significantly over time, showing that explicit instruction on the difference may be required. These findings suggest that for successful communication between two groups with different sociocultural backgrounds, instruction in language use can be helpful.
An Indirect Complaint(IC) is defined as the expression of dissatisfaction about oneself or someone/something that is not present in conversations. The present study considered ICs as positive strategies to build rapport and solidarity and investigated different responses of IC between Cambodian Korean learners as a second language(L2) and Korean native speakers by analyzing two categories – verbal and nonverbal responses. Data from the conversation of each group showed that non-substantive responses were highly employed in the non-native group, while commiserating responses were frequently used in the native group in verbal responses. On the other side, non-verbal commiserating strategies were observed relatively more in non-native speakers than in natives. As a result of the post-interview on IC perception, every participant of both groups perceived the positive effects of ICs. Based on the result, this study suggests applying ICs as positive social strategies when teaching Korean as L2, which leads the learners to have more opportunities to interact and practice the L2.
In recent years, the significance of small talk in institutional context has been receiving considerable attention in the field of sociolinguistics and communication studies. While scholars seem to agree on its social functions that facilitate the accomplishment of the institutional goal of the encounter by “oiling interpersonal wheels”, the wide range of interpersonal relationships enacted in small talk in institutional encounter has not been subject to rigorous research attention yet. By applying Conversation Analysis (CA), this study compares small talk in an on-campus coffee shop within two different interpersonal relationship groups: new customer-barista and regular customer-barista. Data were drawn from 35 video recordings of service encounters interaction involving both native and non-native English-speaking customers at a college-sponsored café. The findings show that small talk with a new customer strictly adhered to coffee-related topics and tended to be quickly curtailed by one or both interlocutors, as suggested by the alignment of their institutional roles of barista-customer. In contrast, small talk between a regular customer and a barista consisted of exchanges on a wide variety of topics. This finding suggests that the topic of conversation is a potential indicator of relationship through a shift of alignment to the interactional roles of ‘friend-friend’.