Tanzaniahasbeen rightlyknownasoneofthemostsuccessfulinstancesofhavingpursued an active endoglossic language policy as well as of promoting an indigenous African language, namely Swahili, as the medium of instruction.Since the early years of independence Swahili has been adopted as the medium ofinstruction forprimary education.Currently, students atsecondary and tertiary levels have to use English as the medium ofinstruction.Thesuddentransitionfrom SwahilitoEnglishhas beenblamedasoneoftherootcausesofthecurrentcrisisofeducational standards. Many scholars both from Tanzania and abroad have consistently pointed outthatthe problem ofthe medium ofinstruction resultsineducationalfailure,buttheTanzaniangovernmenthascontinued to be half-hearted in this matterbased on an exaggerated beliefthat Englishplaysapivotalroleintheageofglobalization.Englishintoday's Tanzania is almostsynonymous with upward socialmobility,and even English-medium primaryschoolshavebeenmushroominginrecentyears. Theconflictbetweenindividualsandofficiallanguagepolicyisinevitable, because the former prefers English as a medium ofinstruction atall levelsandthelattertriestomaintainSwahiliatleastatprimary levels. Foralanguage-in-educationpolicytobeviable,multi-facetedapproaches need to beintroduced and applied to reflectchanging socialrealities in Tanzanian society.The language-in-education policy also needs to be considered in the contextofsocialinequalities and the distribution of limitedresourcesamongmembersofthesociety.
The purpose of this paper is to look into theoretical features of the three leading sociolinguists, Dell Hymes, William Labov, and John Gumperz.On the basis of meta-theoretical terms, which help one to see the differences and similarities of given theoretical viewpoints, this study attempts to delineate main characteristics of the sociolinguistic approaches of the scholars.They are discussed by getting answers to questions such as how they see language or language use, how they perceive sociolinguistics as a discipline in relation to linguistics,to what extent they differ regarding their sociolinguistic approaches and where they can be positioned in the tradition of the philosophy of science as well as that of language study.Dell Hymes' approach, along with his view on the ethnography of speaking, is characterized as featuring sociolinguistic relativism. His major concern is to understand and describe socioculturally-bound ways ofspeaking or communication.In contrast, William Labov's approach,along with his study of sound change at social and regionallevel,is characterized as featuring sociolinguistic realism. This means that he is concerned with scientific description of language shifts as they happen as a whole in the context of actual language use. In addition,John Gumperz's approach is characterized as sociolinguistic interactionism. Unlike the previous two scholars, his sociolinguistic approach is uniquely microscopic in thathis main focus is placed on communicative interactions at the level of individual encounter, like interviewsorface-to-faceconversation.
With thedevelopmentin themeansofcommunicationssuch asinternet andbroadcasting,wearewitnessingafastgrowthofneologism inevery sector of our lives.Although neologism has often been a subjectof criticism,we need to look at itfrom a different perspective for the following reasons.First,neologism isrighteously apartofourlanguage. Second,there are many newly created words that economically and efficientlyconvey varietyofmeaningsreflecting acurrentculture.Third, itnotonlyenrichesourcommunication,throughincreasedvocabularyand theexpansionintheuseofpre-existingwords.Thisarticleaimstofocus specifically on the neologism in campuses of Korean,Australian and Japanese Universities.'Campus terms’in this study are defined as the terms related to a university which play a role ofslangs among the students.Therelatedtermsdealtinthisstudy arethenameofschools, class subjects, students,professors,grades and graduation. Although anyonecan makeorusethe‘CampusTerms’bothinsideandoutsideof the university,the subjects of this study was limited to university studentsonly.Thesimilaritiesanddifferencesinthecampusvocabularies acrossthethreecountrieshavebeencomparedandanalysed.Itishoped thatthis research could provide some lights in the various ways of neologismsofKorean,EnglishandJapanese.
Thepurposeofthisstudyistwo folds:one is to present different perspectives between Koreans and foreignersinconnectingaspecificwordintermsofassociatingantonyms; the other is to suggestsome effective adoptions ofthese findings in teachingKoreanvocabulariestoforeignlearnersofKorean.Itisoftenthe casethatpeopletendtothinkofaspecificwordtogetherwithitsrelated antonym.The relationship between a word and its antonym is closely associated with the vocabulary network in the human brain.Therefore using thisassociationinteachingKoreanhelpslearnerstorememberthe vocabularieseasier.Howeverthesemanticfieldofeachwordisinevitably different depending on the culturalbackground of the learners.This research reveals thatKoreans and foreigners often think ofa different antonym ofthesameword.Althoughtheassociationprocessseemstobe similarbetweenKoreansandforeigners,thereseemstobeadiscrepancy in theextentofabstraction ofantonyms.In otherwords,thedifference arisesnotinthetypeofantonyms,butintheextentoftheabstractionof eachword.Basedonthis,Koreanteachershavetobeespeciallycautious inteaching antonymsby dealing with gradableantonymsanddirectional antonyms in a differentmanner.Itshould be also noted thatteaching Korean vocabulariescan beaccomplishedmoreeffectively byrecognizing andrespectingdifferentculturalbackgroundsofthelearners.
Theaim ofthisstudy isto examine the characteristics ofcommunity-terms on bicycle in internet network .Recently bicycleriding isoneoftheleading trendsin Korea. TheKoreanGovernmentisactivelypursuingthepolicyforbicycleriding, and thepeoplewho areinterested in bicycleriding areon theincrease. New trend makesnew words.Thisstudy isvaluablein thatitshows how socialchange produces effects on the change ofwords.Forthis study,118wordspostedonthecommunitybulletinwerecollectedandthe characteristicsofword formation werelooked atfrom twoperspectives. Onewasan analysisoftheoverallaspectsofmorphemicand semantic changes, and the other was concrete aspects of morphemic and orthographic changes. Next, the three psychological characteristics represented in the community-terms were explained: 1) relation strengthening through the contraction of buzzwords, 2) meaning reinforcementthroughallegoricalfigurations,and3)emotionalexpressions throughthevariationofimplication.Inconclusion,community-termsseem tohavethepowertostrengthentheunityofcommunitymembers
The aim ofthisstudy istoexaminetheextenttowhich foreign wordsare used in Korean movie titles.Forthis purpose,this study analyzed the titles of Korean movies released in or after 2000 and obtained the frequency with which foreign words are used in Korean movie titles. First,thisstudyclassifiedKoreanmovietitlesonthebasisofthewords used asfollows:native,Chinese,mixed,andforeign.Asaresult,mixed movie titles are the most frequent,followed by Chinese movie titles, native movie titles and foreign movie titles.Especially forthe foreign movie titles, this study also classified them according to their morphologicalstructures,the number of their syllables/words,year of release, and their genres. When the movie titles were sorted by morphologicalstructures,movie titles with word-type were the most frequent, followed by the titles with phrase-type and those with sentence-type.And when the movie titles were sorted based on the numberofsyllables/words,theaveragesyllablenumberwas4.75andthe averageword numberwas1.9.Finally,thisstudy observed thepatterns intheuseofforeignwordsinKoreanmovietitlesandfurtherexamined thetypesofmisusageintermsoftheirKoreanRomanization
Thepurposeofthisstudy isto examinetheproblemsofmiscommunication in military organizationsand to suggest some ways in educating military personnel for better communication.Indoingthis,thepresenceofthebarrierandobstaclesin the military communication was closely examined and diagnosed in various ways: how the communicative obstacles affect the flow of information in the military and how each dimension of obstacles is associated with various identities of military personnelsuch as rank, gender,and age.The results reveal three factors in communication problems:first,thebarriersofinformationflow incommunicationprocess; second,the conflictdue to the complex identities ofmilitary members; third,the changes in attitude ofthe communication participants.Along with these findings, suggestions for some directions of effective communication education in military organization arealsodiscussed.The communicationeducationpolicymustconsidertheaspectsofmilitary job specificationsandpriorityofmiddle-gradeoffices,Itshouldbenotedthat continuing education is also important to deliver correctness, appropriateness,andeffectivenessofcommunication
Conversationisbasicallyaprocessofexchanginginformation,establishing common ground among interactants. In conversation, speakers often producecandidateanswersin responsetoapriorquestion asaway of cooperating with each other.Thisstudy investigatestypesandfunctions of candidate answers from an interactional perspective, exploring sequentialstructureswhichinvolvetheuseofcandidateanswers.First,it classifiestypesofcandidateanswersininteractionintermsofsame-turn and next-turn candidateanswers.Second,based on theclassification of candidate answers,it examines sequential aspects in the negotiation process forsecuring correctinformation.Third,this research examines interactionalfunctions of candidate answers.Examination shows that functions ofcandidate answers can be summarized into the following terms: (i)securing correctinformation,(ii)seeking confirmation,(iii) inviting correction,(iv)indicating alimited stateofknowledge,and (v) displaying collaborative attitudes. Finally, this research shows an interactivenatureofconversationwhichisreflectedin doing questioning and offering a candidate answer in the negotiation process between interactants for seeking information about the referents being talked about.
1).Thisstudy aimstoexaminethe use ofEnglish borrowed politeness markers ttaengkyu ‘thank you’and ssori‘sorry’inKoreans'everydayconversation.A closeexaminationofa sociolinguisticsurvey revealsthattheEnglish borrowingsttaengkyu and ssoriand their Korean counterparts are used differently in connection with therelation between speakersandsettings.They donotappearto havemuchdifferenceinmeaning.However,ttaengkyuandssorioccurin informalsettingsandareusedtojuniorsorinferiors,whiletheirKorean counterparts are used to seniors or superiors in formalsettings.As motivations for using ttaengkyu and ssori,modernization and English educationinKoreaareconsidered
This study aimstoexaminetheinterplay between on-linetalk irrelevanttoatask, i.e., gossip talk, and participant alignment during task processing. Specifically, this study examines qualitatively how the gossip talk contributes to L2 interactants' configuration of participant alignment during on-lineproblem-solving activities.Thedataconsistofthescripts ofmorethansixty hoursofL2on-linechatting ofcollegelevelEnglish learners. The qualitative, empirical analysis has shown that the participants'knowledgeofextra-taskworldisdisclosedduringthegossip talk eitherbetween problems to solve oratthe beginning ofthe chat. The task-embedded gossip occurring between problems to solve has generatedfewerturnsthan thechat-opening gossip.Thetask-embedded gossip wasalsolimited in itseffectson reconfiguration ofparticipatory structure and functioned only to reconfirm the predefined participant framework. Chat-opening gossip, by contrast, made significant contributions to emergent participant alignment, which was reflected during thetaskprocessinginthesubsequentturns.Thefindingsindicate thattheunfocusedaction,i.e.,thegossiptalk, contributestothefocused action, i.e, task processing, in terms of construction of participant alignment