In this paper, while examining the entire vocabulary of Korean Basic Dictionary, the vocabulary list is presented by selecting the definitions related to the mouthfeel. The mouthfeel has 2 meanings. One is the sensible feeling you have when chewing food. And the second one is the feeling related to physical texture of the food. The meanings are divided into <surface texture>, <hardness>, <elasticity>, <viscosity>, <moistness>, <heat>. After examining how such qualities are related to food texture, the vocabulary list is categorized according to the main meaning features. We looked closely at how the vocabulary in each area is related to each other in each meaning’s field. In order to understand the relation of vocabulary more systematically, it was drawn into the segmented table. Through this observations, we tried to find out how the vocabulary related to the mouthfeel was developed.
Standardization of terminology cannot be treated lightly as it is extremely important for smooth communication with the public. In this paper, standardization of terminology conducted by central administrative agency based on article 17 of the Organic Law of Korean National Language is examined. Issues associated with the selection of target words for standardization and their refinement process are analyzed along with proper solutions. Currently, standardization of 523 terminologies from Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism, Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy, Ministry of Science and ICT, Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, and Ministry of Citizen’s Interest is officially announced. Types of terminology that needs to be standardized from the perspective of easiness include difficult Chinese words, foreign language, and abbreviated English words. Specific selection criteria is required, as determining what should be deemed difficult can be very subjective. This paper discusses consideration of intermediate level Korean words, classification of loanwords and foreign words, possibility of substitution with proper pure Korean words, and writing abbreviated English words with substitutable Korean words. In addition, the following methods of standardization are discussed: substituting with elementary level Korean words, expressing same meaning, avoiding word-for-word translation, not expressing all elements of meaning, taking account of whole usage of vocabulary, considering laws and policies of specialized area, selecting a representative from dozen, and re-writing foreign words with Korean words.
Despite the importance of the EPS-TOPIK(Employment Permit System-Test of Proficiency in Korean) exam for those who aim to work in Korea under the EPS system, not enough studies have been done on the subject of EPS-TOPIK exam and the official Textbook. In addition, studies on representation of nationality and skin color in textbooks are rare compared to such studies on gender representation. This study investigates the Textbook which hasn't been researched enough, on the matter of representation not only based on gender but also on nationality and skin color. This study analyzes the Textbook quantitatively with the focus on the 20 main characters and qualitatively on the illustrations and texts, and suggests that the Textbook should properly represent its users who intend to work in Korea under the EPS system. Stereotypes based on nationality, preference of so-called ‘Korean’ skin tone and gender inequality should be rejected. The chapter on sexual harrassment in workplace should be revised to go against victim-shaming and to contain helpful contents for sexual harrassment survivors.
The purpose of this study is to examine a corpus regarding the use of discriminatory language and its perceptions. First, we examined informal job titles that indicate social views regarding the respective workers, and then we analyzed expressions indicating negative perceptions as well as negative expressions about occupations and tasks to determine negative views or attitudes toward the workers. Summarizing the results of the analysis, ganhowon(nurse) and cheongsobu(cleaner) as inappropriate titles, nogada(physical labor) and gongdori/gongsuni(factory boy/girl) as expressions of negative perception, and nogada and wunjeonsu(driver) in negative expressions related to occupations and work occur with high frequency. Ganhowon is used with titles for women like eonni(older sister), agassi(lady), and Miss ○, cheongsobu and pachulbu(day maids) with the titles ajumma(tannie) and ajeossi(older man), wunjeonsu and gongsuni with the epithets nom(jerk) and nyeon(bitch), and nogada with the titles ilggun(workers) and inbu(laborers), and such terms as jjapsae(the fuss) with a epithet saeggi(jerk/bleeder) are used mainly as inappropriate titles. Bad behavior, deprecatory social treatment, and negligent discrimination are conveyed in these expressions of negative perception. The expressions related to occupation and work were mainly used for professionals doing less respected or socially lower work or who do not work well, and there were many expressions indicative of low status or lower rank in the job hierarchy. Lastly, references to appearance and sexuality were those most frequently used in expressions conveying other occupational discrimination, and were found to be used mainly for ganhowon and gongsuni who are young women.
The purpose of this study is to examine the perspective of gender in Korean textbooks in the Korea Immigration and Integration Program(KIIP), and to provide basic materials to develop more balanced gender consciousness and to reflect the reality of gender consciousness in Korean society. The purpose of this study was to analyze Korean language textbooks for KIIP. Korean textbooks in KIIP are graded from 0 to 4 levels. However, in this study, level 0 and the beginning level 1 were excluded. The study mainly analyzed illustrations, specifically pictures including those that depict the characters in the textbooks, as well as texts, specifically, the sentences, exercises, an listening dialogues of the target grammar. This study analyzed the gender roles and gender stereotypes in the illustrations and texts in Korean textbooks. As a result, gender stereotypes that were biased to one side in the elementary and intermediate textbooks were suggested or implicitly recognized in a whole society Therefore, in order for migrants to adapt to Korean society, it is necessary to suggest the correct gender role of Korean society within the Korean textbook. To this end, it is necessary to consider the part that can be perceived as one-sided gender stereotypes, and education on the proper recognition of gender and gender equality must be carried out in the development of textbooks.
News media discourses almost inevitably reflect their social and national context. A useful text case of this may be demonstrated with a critical analysis of the discursive patterns of metaphors in accounts of the social phenomenon known as the Arab Spring. In order to analyze those patterns, this paper uses data collected from online articles in the British national daily newspaper, The Guardian and the English version of the Chinese national daily newspaper, The People's Daily. The results demonstrate how the different ideological contexts of the two national newspapers are affirmed and reinforced in the discursive choices of metaphors on the Arab Spring. These results also reveal the newspapers' discursive strategy of positive self and negative other presentation to support their respective national context in the macro structure of political power and ideology.
The purpose of this study is to present the contents of ‘Korean politeness’, which can be used to learn ‘Korean as a Second Language’, from the perspective of ‘conversational performance’. To this end, first, the concept of Korean politeness was examined in two elements: ‘sociocultural norm consciousness’ and ‘conversational strategy of individual speech act’. A conversational performance model of Korean politeness was also investigated as a educational unit of politeness contents. This performance model is composed of ‘adjacency pair’ and based of ‘common ground’ including honorific and speech act requirements. In order to construct educational politeness contents for KSL learner, conversational scenes of the revised KSL textbook, Standard Korean for Elementary Schoolchild were then analysed. In conclusion, politeness contents of KSL textbook were revealed in three aspects: ‘practice of using honorific style’, ‘politeness routines’, ‘politeness expressions and strategies’. Based on the results of the analysis, the direction of politeness education for KSL learners in elementary school was finally proposed in both ‘speech act’ and ‘conversation type’ pragmatic education.
The purpose of this study is to identify perceptions of South Korean activists who have been in contact with North Korean defectors, as well as to identify the characteristics of the voices in the field in comparison to the existing research results coming from academic circles. We conducted an in-depth interview with six South Korean activists who had long interacted with North Korean defectors. The research results are as follows. First, in the field, North Korean defectors’ language was viewed as one of the migrants who had been exposed to various environments rather than a sample of North Korean speech. Second, most informants hesitated to generalize the characteristics of North Korean defectors' speech. Rather, they pointed the speech variations found among North Korean defectors depending on various factors such as class, region of origin, generation, length of stay in South Korea, and age at time of entry. Third, they were wary of generalizing “straightness” as a characteristic of North Korean defectors' speech in recognition of the negative implications of the term. These suggest that there exists some gap between the results of academic circles done regarding North Korean defectors’ speech and language awareness in the field.
In this paper I examine the controversy about the shift of writing systems in Azerbaijan and five Central Asian countries. The transition from Cyrillic to Latin alphabet is important as a symbol of elimination of Soviet traditions, independence from Russia, revival of national identity, facilitation of informations in the West, and contact with the Western civilization.
Currently, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have implemented a transition to Latin alphabet. The shift of the writing system in Azerbaijan is the most successful, followed by Turkmenistan. Uzbekistan is regarded as having half success, since both of Latin and Cyrillic alphabets still co-exist. Among the remaining three central Asian countries, Kazakhstan has been actively promoting the conversion to Latin alphabet, planning to complete the conversion by 2025, but there will be many obstacles to its realization. In other words, they need to overcome the opposition of many Russians, Russian speakers, and the Russian Federation. Also an initiative of the second president Tokaev, who was appointed in March 2019, is uncertain.
In Kyrgyzstan, there have been no attempts of conversion until recently, but it is also possible to begin discussions regarding the shift of the writing system by looking at geopolitical situations including Kazakhstan's experience. In Tajikistan, unlike other countries, the transition to the Arabic-Persian alphabet is discussed. A successful transition of the writing system in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan will depend on the relationship with the Russian government.
As a result, the change of writing system depends on the external relationship with Russia, financial conditions, and agreement between the Russian-speaking and young generations.