This paper stipulates Sejong and Saussure as integrative linguists that based their work on scholastic research, and by comparing their representative works, "Hunminjeongeum with Commentaries" and "General Linguistics Lectures" which were published by people close to them, this paper shows the modernity and post-modernity of their linguistics in terms of their discursive significance. The modernity of Saussure’s linguistics was revealed through scientific methodology of language research using such analysis strategies as langue-centered language research. Although Sejong’s methods were different, he also applied the same scientific and universal rationalism in his invention of letters. Saussure was definitely a modern structuralist, he also opened the possibility of integrative linguistics. Sejong also fully showed such two-sided characteristic through Hunminjeongeum. He had thoroughly expressed the two-sided characteristic in the principles of Hunminjeongeum letters by paying attention to both universality and uniqueness. The differences between these two become prominent in terms of history and the subject. Saussure used the strategy of trying to eliminate historicity through the dichotomy of diachronie and synchronie. In contrast, Sejong naturally accommodated the Asian historical tradition. Ultimately, the linguistics of Sejong and Saussure are integrative (fusional). The setting of the issues and strategy of Saussure, who wanted to establish a unique domain for linguistics, in fact premised a fusion or integration between linguistics and other scholarly disciplines, or requested such a result. The creation of Sejong’s Hunminjeongeum is the result of scholastic fusion of such disciplines as linguistics, music, and science.
This paper examines two English discourse markers, "yeah" and "kin'of," in two nonnative speakers' turns of voluntary corrective actions. From a conversation analytic perspective, the two items are examined in terms of their functional properties during the nonnative speakers' turns. Two nonnative English speaking graduate students, working as teaching assistants in an engineering lab of an American university, participated in the study. The analysis of the dyadic interaction between the nonnative speakers and the native English speaking undergraduate students revealed that the nonnative speakers used "yeah" and "kin'of" in a significantly different manner from the target language norms. In their endeavor to create a shared meaning with their students they often engaged in word- and structure searches, during which they used the discourse markers as the fillers to a possible void in talk. An examination of the spatial location and functional properties of the items also revealed that the markers were more rule-governed in the nonnative speakers’ talk than other hesitation markers. The findings indicate the importance of examining the discourse functions of the markers in the discussion of nonnativeness.
A vast amount of research has now established that writer-reader interaction is embodied in written texts through various linguistic devices. Among them, modalization plays a key role as a strategy for constructing the interaction in text. The impetus for this study is that it allows a new perspective to cross-cultural comparison between English and Korean texts. Based on contextual analysis of 356 British and Korean newspaper science popularizations with the two pairs of analytical categories that show how directly the writer performs the interaction with the reader (Types DI and II) and how strongly the writer commits him/herself to propositions (Types S and W), this paper argues that the discoursal preferences in the interactive use of modalization by the two groups of authors seem to be a reflection of the different orientations to human relations in British and Korean societies: equality-orientation in Britain and hierarchy-orientation in Korea.
The purpose of this article is to examine the necessity and the possibility of sociolinguistic approach to minority in Korea. Firstly, this article defines the concept of ‘minority’ and looks around its socio-historical background and implication. And then, several types of minority can be divided on the basis of its formative period and birthplace. As the next step, two forms of sociolinguistic approach to minority, that is, ‘linguistic human right approach’ and ‘linguistic citizenship approach’ are presented. This article cannot provide a detailed analysis and an alternative, but affords an opportunity to point out the significance and the limit of these two approaches. Finally, this article is concluded by proposing the cultural restructurization of the diversity and the uniformity in Korean society which includes its minority, and by presenting some sociolinguistic tasks related to the abolition of discrimination against minority and guarantee of its linguistic right.
This paper examines whether Korean students learning English are familiar with gender-neutral language. A total of 149 first-year university students were asked to choose the words they would use when speaking or writing English. The questions in the questionnaire consist of two types: Type I asked the students to arrange the given two words (e.g., gentlemen, ladies; boys, girls) in the parallel-pair form conjoined by and; Type II asked the students to choose one of the two words or phrases (e.g., policeman, police officer; anchorman, anchor). Of the eight parallel pairs in Type I, four were chosen where the word order of Korean and English is reversed (e.g., ladies and gentlemen) and the other four pairs have the same order (e.g., boys and girls) in both Korean and English. The students did better with the same order pairs than with the reversed order pairs with the exception of ladies and gentlemen. Of the nine pairs in Type II, a majority of both female and male students picked five gender-neutral words: anchor, firefighter, mail carrier, police officer and flight attendant. The four gender-specific words they preferred were chairman, salesman, freshman and actress.
Recently the Korean government has promoted, as part of a national plan for facilitating English education, the introduction of English immersion programs into public secondary schools in Korea. English immersion programs have been installed in many elementary schools in Canada and the U.S. as a practice of bilingual education, especially to help students in the linguistic minority. The government has also emphasized that the program will be further utilized for teaching general subjects in addition to English, and that it will be installed in the elementary schools as soon as possible. This paper critically reviews the suitability and validity of the English immersion program for Korean public schools from the socio-cultural, politico-economical, and language educational perspectives. Before doing that, this paper discusses: i) the origin and the objects of the immersion program, ii) the English immersion program implemented in the U.S., and iii) the difference between the features of English Immersion programs in the U.S. and those that have been introduced to Korea. Based on these discussions, this paper argues that the English immersion program is not an optimal, nor a suitable program for English education in Korean public schools. This paper suggests some ideasfor planning foreign language education policy in the future.
This article explores how the conflicting ideological positions of the news media in two different countries are reflected in their perceptions of the postwar situation in Iraq and become encoded in lexical choices and strategies in relation to the cognitive and socio-political dimension of the media. The target data were collected from the on-line news reports posted on the respective web sites of the two networks: the Fox News Channel in the U.S. (foxnews.com) and the English-language version of Al-Jazeera in Qatar (english.aljazeera.net). This study adopts an interdisciplinary theoretical framework of critical discourse analysis for ideological representations in news discourse by integrating labeling strategies in information structure from critical discourse scholars (Tomlin et al. 1997; Fairclough 1992, 1995). In particular, the lexical choices and their cognitive and discursive strategies are qualitatively and quantitatively examined by focusing on the labels on the War against Iraq and postwar Iraq. As a result, this study seeks to verify the idea that the ideological differences between the two news networks result in their own strategically and informationally structured labels on Iraqi situations in each news text, keeping and reproducing the separating concept of Self and Other according to each network's socio-cultural identity and ideology.
This study aims to explicate characteristics of bilingualism among members from a Hwagyo(overseas Chinese) community who live in Seoul. For this purpose, this study used two research methods: One was to analyze an example of the conversation between two Hwagyo persons, and the other was to conduct a questionnaire-based survey with 21 Hwagyo persons including the two participating in the conversation. Using these two research methods integrated, this study was to show characteristics of bilingualism revealed individually by the Hwagyo speakers, and in addition, this study was also to investigate bilingualism and bilingual development among the members of the community they belong to. As a result of the analysis of the conversation, this study observed that the Hwagyo participants were creating ‘bilingual codes’ in their dialogue used routinely through borrowing or insertion of Chinese words and constructions, and used Korean-Chinese code-switching strategically. This study dealt with such bilingualism as a product of the ‘bilingual identity’ developed properly by the Hwagyo persons, and deepened understanding of the bilingual identity by showing through the survey the Hwagyo persons’ recognition of bilingual development, language choice, cultural identity, and language attitude.
This paper tries to find out the historical development of news reporting styles of the New York Times (1851-2005) by investigating the types and frequencies of reporting verbs and quoting methods. In the 1850s, when the New York Times was first founded, the reporting style was close to that of personal narratives. Starting from the 1880s, however, the frequency of quoting increased and so did the number of types of reporting verbs. Three methods of quoting were identified from the database: direct speech, indirect speech, and partial quoting. Overall, indirect speech (or, indirect quoting) increased more than direct speech (or, direct quoting) and partial quoting began to be utilized later than the other two quoting methods, peaking its frequency between 1945 and 1975. Evaluation verbs were widely used as reporting verbs in the press release report of political and diplomatic affairs. The use of evaluation verbs is interpreted as an instance of overt involvement in the narrative of the reporter. In addition, the reporter used the partial quoting method as a way of covert involvement. And resources for involvement have been continuously developed and sophisticated. In particular, use of evaluation verbs and partial quoting seems to be a major tool for reporters' involvement in the news narrative.
According to development of mass media, the chance of international communication has increased. Therefore, neologism is created by the inflow of foreign languages, Chinese characters, and loan words. The use of neologism is increased gradually in daily life as well. This article attempts to represent the trend and features of the "campus terms" today. In detail, it studies how to reflect using and understanding of "Campus terms" in college students of South Korea. The results show similarities and differences throughout the linguistic map. "Campus terms" can be defined as a part of the students' unique language use. In particular, subject titles, school buildings, group activities, and experiences on campus are used. Moreover, it can be characterized as a metaphorical and satirical expression of the society.
This study conducts a sociolinguistic analysis of coordinate word order in Korean. The results can be summarized as follows: (i) Word placement (P1, P2) of coordinate word order is determined by the elements of lexical hierarchy, basic vocabulary, word frequency and sociocultural meaning. The elements of lexical hierarchy, basic vocabulary, and word frequency designate the status along the familiar-estranged and superior-inferior axes. (ii) The primary types of coordinate word order are divided into right order (pattern A) types and counter order (pattern B) types. Further, these are based on the arrangement of affirmative meaning (Af) and negative meaning (Ne), which are in accordance with word placement and the sociolinguistic rules of the alternative rule and co-occurrence rule. (iii) The environment types of coordinate word order include natural word order, social word order, and belief word order. The types of word order use include freezing word order and situational order. Therefore freezing word order and situational order, combined with right order and counter order, constitute the formation rule of word order. Based on our saram/horaŋi (man and tiger) example, we describe the input and output of word order. (iv) Coordinate word order comprises different types of word order use, which are influenced by gender variety. Further, the pooling of word order types forms a sociolinguistic pattern and a V-shaped curve. There is also generation variety, which also allows for sociolinguistic patterns to be formed through pooling. The criteria for a W-shaped curve are bi-order, right word order, and counter word order, which combine to form an age-grading and undulating pattern. Finally, there is class variety. In rural dialects class references are used. High classes use the right word order of new types, while low classes use the right word order of old types.
One of the issues in Korean language education is the development of effective alternatives to teach Korean language to immigrant labors. This article deals with the Korean language education for immigrant labors from the point of view of Korean language education policy. It explores the actual conditions of Korean language education for immigrant labors including its meaning and its features. It points out that Korean language education for immigrant labors changes the existing paradigm of Korean education and it has some unique features and problems that cannot be resolved by the capability which has been accumulated during the development process of Korean language education. In this paper, three alternatives are provided to develop Korean education for the immigrant labors. First, every party concerned with Korean education for immigrant labors should participate in working out the master plan. Second, existing regular Korean language education circles and Korean language education circles for immigrant labors collaborate and raise the level of cooperation. And lastly, the accessibility to Korean language education of immigrant labors should be raised.
In English, some occupations are used as titles or address terms, while others are not. For example, doctor is a title and address term, but lawyer and teacher are not. In Korean, however, it is the other way around. This discrepancy among various occupations shows that there exist both linguistic and nonlinguistic conditions which are more than just "status" of the individual or the occupation concerned. According to Bell (1988), it is the absence of the definite article that endorses the descriptive noun phrase to become a title, a process which is achieved by pre-posing the descriptive noun phrase, e.g. linguist Chomsky. In Korean, it is the post-posing of the descriptive noun phrase that achieves the same result, e.g. Gim Jakka (Kim Writer). 105 native speakers of Korean were asked to judge whether or not 30 different occupations sound natural when they are used as titles or address terms. At least three conditioning factors were found to be necessary for higher acceptability: (1) high status of the occupation, including professionality, (2) a discourse context which is high in density in terms of social network, and (3) the occupation name with fewer than three syllables which cannot be abbreviated.