In Korean pedagogical discourse involving young learners, boundaries in pedagogical activities are signaled by the teacher’s style shift that utilizes a range of sentence-ending suffixes that index different degrees of formality and politeness. The shift from the use of the informal polite form -(e)yo to the use of the informal non-polite form -a/e in teacher's talk is contextually motivated by the need to address contingencies associated with a range of classroom management tasks of dealing with individual students, e.g., matters related to disciplining, advising, encouraging, etc. The shift to the formal style characterized by the formal polite forms -(su)pnita/-(su)pnikka takes place in the context where the teacher highlights his/her instructional focus, explicates subject-related knowledge, and/or marks a boundary in pedagogical activities. In young learners' talk in class, the formal style is used when they make a report or presentation related to group activities or produce a response whose upshot draws upon the textbook content, often in the context of reciprocating the formality indexed by the teacher's subject-related questions. Young learners' use of the formal style tends to be limited to a single-shot response, which constrains the extent to which they can sustain participation in subject-related classroom activities. The findings suggest that young learners could benefit from being allowed to use the informal style more freely in dealing with at least some 'formal' aspects of the way subject knowledge is organized in class.
Discussion education, a social conversation form, which learners encounter for the first time, is very significant because the modern society emphasizes social communicative competence. This study aims at examining the contents of discussion education through reconceptualizing the components of discussion competence. Discussion competence is the competence that a discussion participant can make a rational, critical, and balanced communication, using speaking and listening strategy being comprehend․analyze․judge group topics, having open attitude, being based on cooperative contemplative faculty. At this point, contents of discussion education is "cooperative contemplative faculty for a discussion theme"; "comprehensive faculty․analytic thinking․judgment about a discussion theme"; "the open attitude for the social community"; "speaking and listening strategy for the achievement of a discussion purpose"; "a competence that leads rational, critical, and well-balanced discussion procedure". A leaner can expand into a discussion competence, it may be necessary to social communication, through this concrete contents of discussion education.
The main objective of this research is to analyze the concept of gender difference through the language used by different genders shown on TV advertisements. Along with TV advertisements, this study further investigates on the cognition of gender differences through the questionnaire specifically discussing the language used by male and female students. In order to set the background, this research surveys the definitive characteristics of the language with respect to gender difference. Further, by examining the language used by different genders shown on all mass media including TV advertisements, there is an existence of gender differences in terms of linguistic expressions. Second, the field research on cognition was conducted by collecting the data of the middle and high school students. The result of the questionnaire reveals that male and female students choose their words without recognizing the gender differences in their oral or written expressions. As indicates, the cognition of language used by people reflects the explicit use of the language which plays a central role in linguistic change. This research concludes that the language used by male should include the characteristics of the female language in order to change the perception of gender difference.
Politeness is an important feature in Korean language and it has been studied actively. But it can be said that the study of Politeness in the sixteenth century does not exist because the century has often been tied with the fifteenth century, so that research on this field has followed that way. Nevertheless, there are many differences between the fifteenth century and the sixteenth century. Thus it is necessary to study each field separately. Focusing on this view, this investigation is to divide the forms of Politeness and these are the results. The degrees of Politeness in the sixteenth century are: polite formal style―polite informal style, and impolite formal style―impolite informal style. Considering each style with certain examples, firstly, 'nayida, nayitga, showshyeo' forms are the 'polite formal style' and these were used between people in different social ranks, such as 'servant to king, apprentice to master, offspring to parent'. Secondly, 'naengyida, naengyitga/ naengda, nitga/ nae, singa, so' forms are the 'polite informal style' and these were used to express intimacy. In more detail, 'nae, singa, so' forms were used in family relations, not in social relations. Thirdly, '-da/-nda/-ra' forms are the 'impoliteformal style' and these were used to make differences of social ranks definitely. Lastly, '-ra/-ga(go) pattern, -(ni)ri' forms are the 'impolite-informal style' and these were used to make more amiable relations in different social ranks and narrow the emotional distance.
The estimated figure for the total number of Japanese language learners worldwide is 2,979,820, according to The Japan Foundation’s 2006 survey on overseas Japanese language institutions. The global trend toward the increasing popularity of the Japanese language is also apparent in Australia, where the number of Japanese language learners, institutions, and teachers is on the rise. Against this backdrop, this article aims to provide a brief overview of the status of Japanese language education in Australia, and to examine Japanese language learners’ attitudes and perceptions toward Japanese as their second language. To that end, the study explores the ways in which they receive information about Japan, and how images of Japan and the Japanese language vary among those learners with different personal interests about Japan. Based on the findings on attitudes and perceptions toward Japanese, this article also takes the chance to delve into goals in learning Japanese as a second language in Australia.
This study is to understand North Koreans' language assimilation process in South Korea. 10 North Koreans participated in the interviews. Most of North Koreans seriously recognize language differences and put their effort to overcome the differences. They think that proper language use is very important in their adjustment process. Most of them are not satisfied with their current job but very confident of better future. According to the results form this research, North Koreans who arrived earlier perform better in the language assimilation process on the whole. Also, it is found that North Koreans with higher educational background and stronger will to adapt themselves score better in the test of language assimilations.
This paper aims to study the linguistic aspects of advertisements from 1950 to 1959. I compiled and analysed the copies of advertisements from newspapers published during that period. The brief summary of this study is as follows: Many of the copies were written in Chinese characters (漢字) with a mixture of Hangeul (한글). Chinese characters were most frequently used in advertisements. Compared with current advertisements, words from foreign languages were less found in those of 1950s. Domestic products were so few in 1950s that sellers didn't have to compete with others to sell their goods. Thus the linguistic expressions of advertisements were stylistically and strategically simple. But after the Korean War, many kinds of Korean products began to be launched to the market. Then the advertisement language became sophisticated to appeal to the consumers. There was a change in the meaning of the word satang during that period. Originally satang meant "sugar", and "candy" was called alsatang ("egg-shaped sugar"). But when the domestic manufacturer made sugar and named it seoltang ("snowy sugar"), consumers began to call "sugar" seoltang. As a result, the meaning of satang changes from "sugar" to "candy".
The goal of this study is to investigate the circumstances of using foreign words and foreign characters in newspaper. Loan words are used more frequently than new foreign words in all three sections of the newspaper investigated, namely, the financial, social and sports pages. Loan words are found most often in sports page while new foreign words are used most often in the financial page. When representing the new foreign words, the Roman alphabet is used exclusively for the most part. The form of the Korean alphabet along with the Chinese character in the parentheses is found more frequently than the exclusive use of the Chinese character in the financial and social pages. On the contrary, the form of the exclusive Chinese character is used more frequently than the Korean alphabet along with the Chinese character in the sports page of newspaper.
This study investigates the retention of Japanese as a second language in Korean elders' Japanese, which has been in a frozen state since 1945. Transcripts of conversations with young and middle-aged Japanese native speakers and questionnaires were used in the research. The following conclusions regarding aspect of Japanese existences were found as a result of this study: (1)In the case of the animate predicate, the dialect form ORU is the most frequently used. (2)Judging from the degree of contact with Japanese and their current Japanese ability, they use it together with ARU in lower than middle group, but use only ARU at the lowest group. (3)ORU, acquired from Japanese teachers, is often used to refer to teachers, but is neutral in formality. (4)The retention of ORU and the convergence to ARU are assumed to have occurred from 1945 until the present. (5)It is observed that ‘the fossilization of ARU’, ‘the cognitive linguistic reconstruction of RU-forms’ and ‘the use of ARU by L1(Korean) interference’ are the linguistic factors that brought about the retention of a system of Japanese existences.