This study examined the language choice for modality patterns to express the degree of probability specifically in email texts based on Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) analytical framework. Participants were students enrolled in an English writing composition course at an online-based Korean university. They were required to write an email thanking their professor, in which they stated their future plans (definite or indefinite) with a degree of probability. The text analysis was compared with two groups of students' scores (high-scoring group n=40 and low-scoring group n=29), based on an assessment of the course assignment. After building up two learner corpora, UAM Corpus Tool version 3.0 was used to analyze the language choice closely using a modality system of the SFG framework. The high-scoring group showed more range and frequency in the use of modal verbs combined with a modal Adjunct or another modal expression. Explicit teaching on the importance of expressing the appropriate degree of probability using a range of modality devices, rather than relying heavily on the primary modality (choice of modal verbs) is highlighted as a pedagogical implication.
This study aims to show that language purification policies are the most important factors that influence Korean language differentiation, based on the premise that Korean is a pluricentric language having two regional varieties: South Korean P’yojuno and North Korean Munhwao. To this end, on the basis of a precedent study that analyzed regional variation mechanisms in French through four factors—terminological, socio-terminological, psycho-terminological, and extra-terminological—we identified two factors having great influence on the language change in South and North Korean societies: socio-terminological and extra-terminological. We also found that these factors precisely correspond to two categories in Kloss's(1969) theory of language planning— corpus planning and status planning; this confirmed that we should consider Korean language differentiation from the standpoint of language policy. There are many factors that cause language differentiation, and there is no doubt that these factors also have complex interrelationships. However, this study is all the more meaningful in that it uses systematic analysis to state that language policy plays an important role in Korean language differentiation.
This study intends to review ≪The Subject's Linguistic Theory≫, the 1st volume of the Linguistics Collection, published in 2005 by the Institute of Linguistics at the Academy of Social Sciences. The Linguistics Collection was published with the aim of summing up the achievements of the linguistics research conducted by North Korea after its liberation from Japanese colonial rule, and the fact that ≪The Subject's Linguistic Theory≫ was selected as the 1st volume of this series means that this field is the best manifestation of the nature of North Korean linguistics. This study aims to see how North Korea's language perception differs from or same as ours, and eventually to explore the possibility of mutual communication of linguistic studies conducted in the South and the North. In section 1, it explains the overall purpose of the study, and in section 2, it examines the process in which the North's linguistic theory, called “The Subject's Linguistic Theory,” has been formed, and in section 3, it analyzes the contents of ≪The Subject's Linguistic Theory≫ (2005), published as part of the Linguistics Collection. In section 4, we attempt to present the necessity of meta-linguistics and the role of social linguistics through the theoretical questions that this 'The Subject's Linguistic Theory' poses to us.
This study adopts the viewpoint that understanding linguistic aspects of different groups is efficient to promote a person's world view, which leads to increasing intercultural sensitivity(IS). The first goal is to examine the IS of the entire participants who experienced different languages. The second goal is to examine the difference in IS according to students' linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This study collected and analyzed quantitative and qualitative data through surveys at a school accepting diverse languages. As a result, first, the overall IS of the participants turned out to be in the Adaptation phase(AP) indicating ethnorelative world views. Second, multicultural family students(MS) were found to have higher IS compared to general students and to face solving communication issues with students of different backgrounds in the AP. General students are first found to have some issues left in the Minimization phase they need to solve, but an indepth analysis has shown that they are also in the AP since they face solving the similar issues to MS. This study, finally, puts forward some suggestions on dealing with multicultural languages.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of political discourse between South and North Korea in a 2019 New Year Message. To this end, 13we analyzed the text structure of the New Year Message and looked at strategies to persuade the audience in each stage of construction. The text structure of the New Year message is basically a form of persuasive text. However, the persuasion strategies shown in the two texts have commonalities and differences at the same. Both texts commonly take an emotional approach in the introductory and closing sections, but persuade the audience in a rational approach in the main section. However, as there are differences in the way of defining the speaker's position, there are differences in overall tone, paragraph composition, and vocabulary usage. In President Moon’s New Year Message, he defines the president as a supporter of the people, and accordingly maintains the tone of treating people with high honors. In addition, it was an easy-to-understand expression that aimed to win people's hearts through simple but sometimes firm sentences. In contrast, Kim's New Year Message reflects the vertical hierarchy of North Korean society, and the speaker maintains an authoritative tone by defining himself as the highest leader that the people believe and follow. This attitude contributes internally to concretely dictate the tasks to be undertaken by the people and externally to the declaration of the will and position of North Korea.
This study examines the characteristics of Virtual Advertisements, particularly with respect to the formal and content characteristics of Virtual Advertisements. Among the expressions of language, the discussion was particularly centered on linguistic solidarity. Text cohesion can be explored in terms of cohesion, which means content and semantic association of text, and condensation that refers to grammatical association of text layers. There were two ways to maintain the verbal bonds of virtual advertising: morphological and syntactic method. Morphological methods can be largely divided into two ways: to maintain the consistency of text by repeating the same word, or to maintain the consistency of text by using vocabulary in the same category. The syntactic method was studied, focused on the syntactic condensation that appears in the language expressions of the front and rear scenes of virtual advertising. Specific methods of syntactic condensation devices can be divided into five types: distich, sentence connection, sentence response, omission and rhetorical connection.
This study investigates phonological variations of the Gyeongsang dialect speakers in dialect contact situations in Seoul. This study also examines what factors have significant effects on these phonological variations. It focuses on social factors: ‘gender’, ‘language attitude’, ‘length of residency in Seoul’ and in particular, ‘age group’ that is classified based on whether the participants received compulsory education where standard Korean is used. The tendency of the phonological variation is disproportionate for each phonological variable. In direct dialect contact situations in Seoul, Gyeongsang dialect speakers undergo phonological variation almost all the phoneme and phonological rule but the relatively low toneme. But this quantitative loffwness of the variation degree on toneme variant is not absent in the knowledge of the phonological pattern of Seoul Korean, but rather is hard to adapt or habituate it. In other words, the achievement of toneme variation requires a certain amount of acquisition period compared to the other variants. This study shows that it may take about 20 years to adapt to the phonological patterns of Seoul Korean. The statistical analysis of phonetic data suggests that all social factors investigated in this study influence a speaker's frequency of use of the Seoul Korean variants. Especially, each age group shows different tendency of influence of social factors. Old speaker group influences by social factors in the following order: ‘gender’, ‘length of residency’ and ‘language attitude’. In the case of young, on the other hand, the order is ‘language attitude’, ‘length of residency’ and ‘gender’.
The purpose of this paper is to compare how the South and North Korean press used the terms of address and honorifics for the leaders of the two Koreas. We analyze the press reports related to the three inter-Korean summits in 2018 and the Panmunjeom meeting among the leaders of two Koreas and USA in 2019. We focused on the data of address terms and honorifics for President Moon Jae-in and Kim Jong-un used by the South Korean and North Korean newspapers. Specifically, we looked at the difference in usages between the South Korean newspapers and North Korea's newspaper Rodong Sinmun, the difference in usages between the Hankyoreh and Chosun Ilbo in South Korea, and the difference in usages between the 2000 and 2018 inter-Korean summits. Through this analysis and discussion, we can clearly see that many factors affect the use of language in the media, such as the political system of the two Koreas, the political attitude of the two South Korean media toward North Korea, and the age of the top leaders of North Korea.
This article attempts to elaborate upon the notion that anyway seems to play specific discursive functions in the institutional talk, Donald Trump Speech relevant to monologues rather than any other institutional talk related to turn-sequences, taking heed of how its usage is connoted in disparate settings of his monologic speeches. Drawing upon the observation pertaining to the monologic speeches of anyway in spoken language, it was shown that the use of anyway indicates the four certain discursive functions including resumptive, transitive, incremental, and strengthening markers in order to acquire his vested rights, or receive his votes, and maintain his favorable reputation. As for the heterogeneous nature of anyway between monologues and turn-sequences, it may be presumed that monologic anyway does not tend to function to close or alter ongoing narratives or themes, whereas its anyway may be utilized to indicate that interlocutors have the intention of increasing supplementary information or thoughts and highlighting absolute contentions; in addition, this may be related to a contemptuous function.
In this study, the linguistic features of spoken and written expressions of South and North Korean were examined through the analysis of quasi-spoken language corpora. The Korean language can be understood better through a broader study of spoken language than written language. In this paper, the frequencies of the use of parts of speech, transformative endings, the forms of ending sentences/utterances, types of sentences/utterances, degree adverbs used as the meaning ‘very’ were researched. The language expressions of South and North Korean have a lot in common, but there are not a few differences in part. The differences appear more in colloquialism than in written language. The exact understanding of them will be possible by building a very large scale of spoken and written corpus of South and North Korean.