The purpose of this res않rch is to analyze the terrns of address assigned to visitors of some of the intemet sites that are administered by Korean govemment agencies. We focus es따ial ly on the use of the designated forrns of address that have 뾰en established by the operators of these sites. The data for this study was collected from what are considered to be the 24 major government intemet sites based on the amounts of site tr따fic or their Împortance in setting standards for the proper usage of the Korean language. 1n section 2, we describe the general characteristics that underlie the expression of site specific terms of address. 1n section 3, we observe the relationship of the identity of 9 prototypical individual sites 10 the s야cific terms of address that are employed on these sites. ln this approach, we treal the genre of visitors and the goals of the intemet sites as discrete analytical va디ables that are then an외yzed in terms of fonns of address as related to site identities. ln so doing, we note how the intemet site operators establish and maintain the identities and terrns of relationship that 잉이 st between the visitors and the govemment agencies that sponsor the web sites. In the prcκess of this an외ysi s， we will observe that the terrns of address for visitors are not necessarily identical in the similar types of intemet sites. Rather, the terms of ad따ess vary according to the intentions and attitudes of the operators of the intemet sites.
This large- scale corpus study examined the gender differences in the use of tag questions in terrns of three different social variables: age, education and private/public situations. Seven hundred and fifty- three tag questions were extracted from the British component of the 1ntemational Corpus of English (ICE -GB), where social variables were parsed and tagged. Overall, women used a slightly higher number of tag Questions: Out of the weighted 5E() tag Questions, men used 'l37 tag Questions (43.1%) and women used 313 tag questions (56.9%). Among men, the number of tag questions increased with age while the number of tag questions decreased with age among women. The women in the 18-25 and 26-45 age brackets used more tag Questions than the men in the same age brackets. But the women older than 45 used fewer tag Questions than the men older than 45. Women with a secondary education used more tag Questions than men with the same education. But both women and men with a tertiary education had about the same frequency of use of tag Questions. 1n the private situations women used more tag Questions than men while in the public situations men used more tag Questions than women
This paper explores whether the English reading texts of College Scholastic Ability Tests are factually accurate. The tests which were administered over the fifteen-year period since 1996 are investigated with regard to whether the infonnation in the texts which deal with historical events or figures and real life situations is factually accurate. The results show that there are 12 test items which are not factually accurate. Some of the items which use the original texts intact or have a minor modification to them contain information which is not true when their original texts are cross checked with various sources of materials. Others have inaccurate information resulted from the revisions of the original texts such as modifying them in order to lower the difficulty of the items. In conclusion, it is suggested that every effort should be made to confirm whether the information in the reading texts is factually accurate or to sustain the information as it is as much as possible if it is accurate.
This pa야r presents findings of a comparative analysis of the use of the word democnα:y as bino때aJs (e,g" democracy and freedom) in the US and South Korean newspa야r COlpora, The US corpus is 42 rnillion words comprising foreign news reports taken from the New York Times and the Washington Post from 1댔 to 2야3， The South Korean corpus consists of news articles from the Dong-A Ilbo and the Hankyoreh. The corpus covers the same period between the year 1999 and 2003 and is of a relatively modest size of 200 thou없nd words, The anaJysis has shown di fferences in the frequency of the noun phrases occurring as binornials with demαracy， While human rights-relat어 noun phrases are found to occur most frequently with democracy in the US corpus, it is obseπed that capitalism-related noun phrases occur most frequently in the South Korean corpus, It is a1so found that a number of evaluative and rhetorical functions are perfonned by the binornials of demαracy such as evaluating other countries on their political, sociaJ, and economic problems; criticizing actions 떠ken by the govemment and political oppositions; or stressmg paπnership with other countries,
ln this case study, we have focused on the disempowerrnent of a Korean English teacher (KET) in English-only classrooms. Six English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms in a Korean high school were observed and analyzed by using interpretive discourse analysis. Out of the six classes, three representative classrl。이ns were both video- and audio - ta많d. The results show that the English-only classes co띠d weaken the KETs’ power via three mechanisms: (a) ca!ling the KETs’ last name for chor외 greetings at the beginning of the class, (b) students’ group solidarity and 야er pressure between classmates, and (c) the students' excessively collaborative approach to 야er assistance. It is argued that the exclusive Engush-oruy instruction disempowers 비e KETs’ status and dismantles their vocational identity. ln order to remedy the current situation, within a scaffolding suppαted by the eclectic use of first language where necessary for effective class management, KETs are empowered and overcome constraints imposed by the limited L2 oral competence of some non-native English teachers.
This study aims to explore the forms of negative yes/no interrogatives and the social actions they perform in task-oriented conversations in Korean and English. The data consist of 20 Korean and 22 English pairs interacting with each other whiJe arranging a series of 15 pictures. It seems that negative yes/no interrogatives are used more extensively in Korean conversation than in English, and that they have different interactionaJ functions in the two languages. AnaJyses of the data suggest that negative yes/no interrogatives in English are used to perform a very specific function in interaction, making an assertion in a disaligning situation while seeking agreement from the addressee. On the other hand, it is shown that negative yes/no interrogatives in Korean are used as an important interactionaJ device between conversationalists. It seems that the ch미ce of the two types of negative yes/no interrogatives in Korean is largely dependent on the speaker’s estimation of the following two factors: (a) the degree of certainty about the information conveyed, and (b) the degree of common ground with the addressee. (Hanyang University, 마1san)
This article is a response to the need for a more nuanced understanding of the silence and talk concems of participants with Asian and American backgrounds in relation to c1ass participation. Although the silence of students from Asian culture in English- dominant education has been widely di scussed in the L2 literature, a comparative approach to silence of Asian and Arnerican students in academic courses is scarce. By attempting to deconstruct dichotomizing trends of thinking about cl ass roαn silence embedded in cultural differences, this study aims to position dialogic negotiations of differences on the fault line in 뼈tween cultures. Using data from students' essays and classroαn observation over a semester, 1 compare and contrast perceptions of oral participatioll in an L2 acadernic class. 1 discuss what common expectations both groups have regarding oral participation and the differing attitudes they have toward silence and willingness to communicate. My discussion implies the need to remap dichotornizing ideas about East versus West and to foml a pedagogically appropriate response to silence in increasingly intercultural academic commumtles.
Japanese has borrowed many words from English through contacts with English-speaking countries since the mid-19th century. The borrowed words have been integrated into the Japanese lexicon, observing phonological and morphological rules of Japanese. Among the types of loanwords from English, this research examines abbreviated English words in Japanese by classifying them into five categories: (i) consonantal abbreviations, (iil acronyms, (iil) initialism (iv) clipping, and (v) blending. Examination of the present data shows that more than half of the tokens are examples of clipped words, suggesting that clipping is the most frequently used method of abbreviating borrowed words into Japanese. lnitialism comes second in making abbreviated expressions, even applying to newly coined Japanese English (]E) words. After that, this study explores linguistic motivations which are responsible for the formation of abbreviations in Engli h loanwords. It shows that economy and distinctiveness/contrastiveness are two most important motivation for the formation of abbreviations of English loanwords in Japanese.
From a conversation-analytic perspective, this paper examines the ways in which the Korean sentence-ending suffix (SES) -ketun is used in naturally occurnng sp아<en Korean 이 scourse. Focusing on the question of how the practice of informing implemented by the ketun-utterance provides a basis for the sequentially implemented action of account-giving (Kim & Suh 2뼈)， it a n따yzes (i) the nature of the information marked by -ketun in terms of how it is grounded, (ii) the sequential contexts where the informing sequence that -ketun generates is embedded, and (iii) features of the ketun -marked account with reference to the practices of formulating non-negotiable upshot, evo싸 ng positionally relevant identities, unpackaging information geared to enlightening the address얹. and stance-shifting. These practices are analyzed as being constitutive of the action-organizational features of the ketun-marked account, whose upshot is proposed to be that of evo써 ng and managing the information gap or disparity in knowledge asseπed by the speal<er to exist between the partlclpants.