Kim, Kyu-hyun. 2004. A Conversation Analysis of Korean Sentence-Ending Modal Suffixes -ney, -kwun(a), and -ta: Noticing as a Social Action. Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). Drawing upon H. S. Lee's (1993) cognitively-oriented research on the functions of three sentence-ending modal suffixes in Korean that are used to express newly perceived information, -ney, -kwun(a), and -ta, this study analyzes the distinct meanings of these suffixes from a conversation-analytic perspective (Sacks et al. 1974). The suffix -ney is used in the context in which the speaker notices a referent/event and makes an assessment on the spot in such a way that the speaker's stance displayed through the action is formulated as something that is to be immediately oriented to and contingently taken up by the hearer. In contrast, the suffix -kwun(a) is used when the speaker is mainly oriented to displaying a stance congruent with the prior talk. The action it organizes is often limited to acknowledging a point of the prior talk or having the hearer acknowledge the speaker's observation, often with a salient topic-curtailing and sequence-terminating import. The suffix -ta tends to orient the hearer to the next stage of the speaker's action (e.g., suggestion, warning, offer, etc.) to whose directive force the hearer is variably implicated as a beneficiary/facilitator. The interactional account offered in this paper is shown to complement Lee's cognitive account, with emphasis placed on examining the ways in which these suffixes are used as resources for organizing distinct types of social action.
Kim, Jeong-Eun. 2004. Modern Culture in Advertisement Language. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). From January 2001 to July 2003, I conducted a study examining and categorizing advertisement language into seven different types: those representing rejection of prejudices and discriminations, family culture (emphasizing the importance of the family), aristocratic culture, 'upstart' culture, trends of sexually merchandising women, new life styles of the young generation, and Westernized culture. Both changes in and preservation of traditional culture were observed in the analysis of the seven types of advertizement language; both positive and negative points were found in the analysis. Advertisement language reflects not only the culture of the time and age but also leads, in advance, the attitude of people in that society. Therefore advertisement media and agencies should assume responsibility and play the leading role so that they could help build a more sound and healthy society.
Interaction in Korean Conversation. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). Among many topics in interactional linguistics, the research on reactive tokens has explored complex processes in which participants collaborate and develop each other's talk in a moment-by-moment fashion. The present study investigates properties of backchannels as tokens of social interaction in Korean conversation by adopting methodology of frequency analysis and conversation analysis. Through a frequency analysis of backchannels such as 'e', 'a', 'um', and 'ung', this research shows that backchannels most frequently occur at complex transition-relevance places where turn-constructional units and intonation units converge. Examination shows that major functions of backchannels in conversation can be summarized as in the three categories: (i) to signal passive recipiency of the on-going turn, showing attentiveness or acknowledging what is being talked about, (ii) to signal that the recipient is in agreement or of the same opinion with the current speaker, and (iii) to express recipient's affiliative or emotional attitudes such as sympathy toward the information provided, among others. Finally, this research shows that interaction-based study of backchannels in their interactional contexts can provide a better way of understanding communicative strategies and the relationship between conversation and grammar than do other traditional or formal approaches to grammar.
Kim, Hyesouk. 2004. Theories and Developments of Sociolinguistics. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). The purpose of this article is to understand a current status of sociolinguistics by reviewing previous studies and attempting to see the future of the discipline as linguistics. As Milroy and Milroy (1990:485) have defined, sociolinguistics is "the study of language as it is used by real speakers in social and situational contexts of use." It has four characteristics. (1)Those who study sociolinguistics are linguists but they have great interests in adding social variables to pure linguistics. Sociolinguists believe that criteria of correct language usage be based upon not only pure grammatical standards but also societal norms in terms of its relevance and general acceptance. (2)The goal of sociolinguistics is to identify a co-variance between language and society and to establish a theory of language performance. (3)Sociolinguistics regards synchronical and diachronical traits as an identical frame. (4)Sociolingustics pays attention to language usage in societal contexts and extends language competence, which is the main subject of pure linguistics, to communicative competence. D. Hymes predicts that the core areas of linguistics is actually sociolinguistics and, thus, the prefix 'socio' will not be necessary. Although we still have that prefix, it is true that sociolingusitics has already had its own identity and is growing rapidly as an independent discipline. In conclusion, this paper argues that sociolinguistics will receive more attention from linguists and play a key role in linguistics by explaining variation in language more systematically, and by interpreting and eliminating language conflict in everyday life.
Park, Youngsoon. 2004. Current Trends and Future Prospects of Sociolinguitics Research in Korea. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). This study aims to review the sociolinguistic research currently going on and to find out the key issues and theoretical arguments in sociolinguistics. Especially studies in socio-historical linguistics by Labov (2001), Trudgill (2002), Eckert (2000), and Milroy and Gorden (2003) are reviewed. These studies deal with gender and social class as the main social variables which lead linguistic changes in progress. They, in particular, suggest that women tend to be the leader of linguistic changes. That is, at the beginning of change, women's favored linguistic form tends to be local and non-standard, but later it becomes the superlocal norm which is different from the standard norm. Several scholars in this field conducted studies examining Korean data; they also found that gender and social class play a central role in linguistic changes. But more in-depth Korean sociolinguistic research is in demand to find out whether linguistic changes in progress in Korean also follow the general pattern proposed by Labov and others.
Park, Jun-Eon. 2004. English-only Education Movement in the U.S.: Focusing on Proposition 227. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). This paper analyzes the recent English-only movement prevalent in the United States of America, focusing on Proposition 227, which was enacted as California Educational Code in 1998. Seemingly, the legislation of 227 is considered a victory of pro-English monolingual activists, who have propagated their anti-bilingual sentiment throughout the nation since the 1980s. Advocates of English-only education maintain that bilingualism and bilingual education do much harm to the limited English proficient students by obstructing the development of English proficiency, whereas advocates of bilingual education rebut this argument as groundless and misleading. Unless Proposition 227 is overturned by California voters, the educational law is expected to exert its legal power in oppressing bilingualism and bilingual education that have been appraised as beneficial to the education of ethnic minority students in the state.
Lee, Gil-Jae. 2004. A Sociolinguistic Research on the Restructuring of Declension and Inflection Stems in Naju Dialect. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). This research investigates, by examining the synchronic distribution of linguistic variants across social classes, the directions and the social implications of the restructuring of the declension and inflection stems in Naju dialect. Past research of the restructuring of the stems has been focused only on the synchronic variation which reflects the last phase of linguistic change. For example, the conclusion of past research that ‘the ᄃ-irregular inflected words’ have been restructured to ‘Xㄹㆆ’ or ‘X’ has not shown restructuring processes but only the results of linguistic change. In other words, the restructured ‘Xㄹㆆ’ or ‘X ’ only shows linguistic variation, but it does not explain what it means in the linguistic society and its social meaning. Furthermore, even if the simplification is a general tendency of restructuring, the results of past research cannot prove what variants would survive at the next phase. This study, accordingly, examines the stem restructuring processes and the directions of transformation concentrating on the nouns with stem endings ‘ㅈ, ㅊ, ㅌ’ and the inflected words with stem endings ‘ㅅ, ㄷ’ in Naju dialect.
Lee, Jang-Song & Shin, Gyeong-Shik. 2004. A Study of Codeswitching by the Korean-Chinese People Living in Chenguoz District of Harbin. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). The main purpose of this paper is to analyze Korean-Chinese people's usage of Korean and Chinese in terms of code-switching. To be more specific, the study is focused on analyzing the bilingualism within the Korean community in Chenguoz District of Harbin, Heirungjiang Province, China. The study especially focuses on clarifying the reciprocal relationship between the Korean language and the Chinese language, examining the difference in the usage of the two languages according to age groups. This specific area was selected as our subject, since most of the Korean communities in the Heirungjiang area were formed by descendents of the immigrants from the southern provinces of the Korean Peninsula, which allows the comparison between the language used today and the language their ancestors used before moving to this area. Due to the industrialization and innovation brought about by the opening of the Chinese society, the fast outward flow of youths to urban areas, and greater assimilation threats from the embedding Chinese culture, we are not too sure if the Korean language will continue to be used in the future. Given these circumstances, we consider this research most opportune in that it provides a look into the Korean community that developed its distinctive culture and language within an isolated cultural environment.
Chae, Wan. 2004. The Meaning of Naming Apartments: From the Sociolinguistic Viewpoint. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). This paper investigates the sociological meaning of naming apartments in the 2000s. This research is focused on the meaning of the names of newly-distributed apartments from July 2000 to October 2003, because recent trends in naming apartments have emerged since that period. Three phases can be found. During the first phase when apartments were just introduced to Korea, two syllabic names similar to the names of the companies or the districts were common. In the mid-1990s, most apartments located in new towns were named after the name of an apartment complex itself and those of the building companies. In the 2000s, i.e., in the phase of the so-called 'brand-name apartments', most of the apartments have difficult foreign names. Namists often formed complicated words in order to convey various concepts in a few syllables. Those brand names reflect the ideal lives that contemporary Koreans dream of. The frequency of use in naming brands implies that Koreans generally dream of such a life as to live in nature-friendly environment, wish to be promoted to a higher status, live a life intelligent, up-to date and artistic, cherish the happiness of a family, and become richer than before if possible.
Hong, MinPyo. 2004. A Contrastive Study of Korean, Japanese, and Australian University Students’ Strategies for Expressing Complaints. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). This contrastive study aims at inquiring how South Korean, Japanese, and Australian University students express their complaints in a given situation. The research was performed from May to September, 2002. The number of students who participated in the research was 417: Korean males-60 and females-119, Japanese males-56 and females-119, Australian males-44 and females-68. The results are summarized below. In general, Koreans tend to express their complaints directly, but Japanese do that indirectly, whereas, Australians tend not to express their complaints at all. Most Japanese and Australians do not complain if a senior classmate is late for an appointment. Concerning age differences and seniority Koreans tend to express themselves more clearly than the other two groups. They want him/her to do something for them as a kind of compensation for waiting, like paying for a cup of coffee. When getting lower than expected grades in a class, on the other hand, most of the Koreans and Australians directly express their complaints to their teachers, but the Japanese just accept the result and do not express any kind of complaints. All three groups expressed themselves immediately and directly, when it came to individual inconveniences, such as the radio being too loud in a taxi, feeling pressure from a sales person to purchase something, or a book they ordered not arriving on the exact date without a notification in advance.
Hong, Eun-jin. 2004. An Analysis of Vocabulary Errors by Japanese Learners of the Korean Language. The Sociolinguistic Journal of Korea, 12(1). This paper examines vocabulary errors, especially focusing on replacement errors in writing, of Japanese who learn the Korean language. Through the analysis of these vocabulary errors in writing, it was found that the important causes of the errors are native language influence, target language influence, and educational curricula, etc,. This study attempts to explain the errors through a contrastive analysis of Korean and Japanese. The results of the analysis are presented with the error list, the error correction list, and the study list for objective research. The findings of this research can be summarized as follows: First, errors with nouns that aren’t used in the target language are caused by the transfer of the native language. Second, errors with adverbs occurred in relation to sentence meaning rather than word meaning itself. Third, errors with number adjectives appeared in the combinations of ‘native Korean numeral + Chinese-origin noun’, or ‘Chineseorigin numeral + Chinese-origin noun’. The teaching of combination rules about these sequences will help Japanese learners of Korean to decrease these errors. Fourth, many errors with verbs and adjectives were found to come from meaning similarity that exists between the native and target languages. Fifth, errors with collocations were due to the transfer of Japanese to the target language and also to similarities in meaning.