For Japanese and Korean learners of English as a second language (ESL), the substitution of [š] (the palatalized [s]) for /s/, is a well‐documented error pattern, in which a phonological rule of the learnerʹs native language (L1) is transferred to the production of the target language (L2). A necessary task for learners to achieve target‐appropriate production of L2 sounds is to overcome such rules of L1 phonology. Motivated by anecdotal observations, this work investigates any potential relations between the pronunciation accuracy of the target English /s/ and some social factors of Korean and Japanese ESL learners: L1, gender, academic major, LOR, and attitude. Two sets of production data, spontaneous speech and isolated words reading, were collected from sixteen Japanese and thirteen Korean learners of English. Then, a series of impressionistic analyses of the data was conducted. The findings indicate that the level of target‐appropriate L2 production is, to an extent, related to the learnerʹs personal and social factors.
In Conversation Analysis (CA), laughter, which is treated as a systematically produced activity, has been investigated in connection with troubles. This paper examines initiating laughter in three writing tutoring sessions at a university writing center in Korea, deploying the method of CA. Laughter can be used in two ways in the dataset. Firstly, tutors can use laughter to mitigate their negative assessment about the studentʹs essay. Along with delays and mitigating expressions, laughter infiltrated in the assessment can mitigate the dispreferred nature of the negative assessment. Secondly, both tutors and students can display their talk or action as inappropriate through laughter. The tutor uses laughter when producing talk that can be treated problematic or accountable. The students join in the tutorʹs laughter, and this shared laughter mitigates the problematic nature of the tutorʹs talk. Students may similarly use laughter to display their awareness of the inappropriate nature of their talk or conduct, when responding to the tutorʹs questions. The analysis suggests that laughter can be associated with interactional troubles. The conclusion will include comparisons with other institutional contexts.
In conversation analysis (CA), wh‐questions are treated as invoking a claim that questioners have no knowledge about the information being solicited. This paper examines a particular form of wh‐questions that indexes an epistemic claim incongruent with such a claim of no knowledge. In particular, it examines wh‐questions that are marked with a committal suffix in Korean conversation, in which the committal suffix indicates that the speaker should have the information at hand. Using the method of CA, this paper shows that these wh‐questions indexing incongruent knowledge claims are used in contexts in which questioners know or should know about the information being solicited. First, they are commonly used to seek a particular piece of information questioners already know about, or should already know about, by reference to prior talk or shared knowledge with recipients. Second, wh‐questions marked with committal endings can be used as word searches. In these cases, they do not seek the other partyʹs active participation in finding solutions to the missing word(s) and thus are self‐directed. The analysis will suggest that wh‐questions with committal endings can serve to avoid a potential trouble or accountability in interaction.
Although should implies obligation or necessity and would indicates undecided desire or intention, the phrases would/ʹd like to and should like to do not differ semantically, except that should like to is used in written British style. This paper investigates the two expressions synchronically and diachronically in corpora, namely the COHA, COCA, GloWbE, BYU‐BNC, and BNCweb. Historically, should like to was more frequent before the 1850s, but has almost disappeared from American English in the 20th and 21st centuries. Following American English, should like to has almost perished in the Inner, Outer and Expanding Circles of English. It was overtaken by would/ʹd like to, which flourished until the 1970s, and has subsequently decreased in use, despite remaining common in contemporary English. Filling the gap, would/ʹd love to has increased in use over time. The paper discusses would/ʹd love to as a popular expression in the future.