In this paper I examine the controversy about the shift of writing systems in Azerbaijan and five Central Asian countries. The transition from Cyrillic to Latin alphabet is important as a symbol of elimination of Soviet traditions, independence from Russia, revival of national identity, facilitation of informations in the West, and contact with the Western civilization.
Currently, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have implemented a transition to Latin alphabet. The shift of the writing system in Azerbaijan is the most successful, followed by Turkmenistan. Uzbekistan is regarded as having half success, since both of Latin and Cyrillic alphabets still co-exist. Among the remaining three central Asian countries, Kazakhstan has been actively promoting the conversion to Latin alphabet, planning to complete the conversion by 2025, but there will be many obstacles to its realization. In other words, they need to overcome the opposition of many Russians, Russian speakers, and the Russian Federation. Also an initiative of the second president Tokaev, who was appointed in March 2019, is uncertain.
In Kyrgyzstan, there have been no attempts of conversion until recently, but it is also possible to begin discussions regarding the shift of the writing system by looking at geopolitical situations including Kazakhstan's experience. In Tajikistan, unlike other countries, the transition to the Arabic-Persian alphabet is discussed. A successful transition of the writing system in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan will depend on the relationship with the Russian government.
As a result, the change of writing system depends on the external relationship with Russia, financial conditions, and agreement between the Russian-speaking and young generations.
This study aims to review the short history of language situations in Belarus and to examine the changes and consequences of the language policy during the Soviet period and 4~5 years after the independence. 25 years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russian is the national and most important language in Belarus, unlike in other post-Soviet Republics. As a matter of fact, 100% of Belarusians can speak Russian and approximately 5% of people can speak Belarusian fluently. In Belarus, the Russian language holds the status of the state language due to its cultural and historical background, rather than a friendly relationship between Russia and Belarus. More than 80% of the residents are virtually Belarusian-Russians in every public sector and personal activity. Russian is a mandatory language of all secondary schools in addition to the Belarusian. Moreover, the Russian-speaking population of Belarus is treated not as foreigners, but as members of the state, and is seen as part of the state-forming nation. The reason is that the indigenous titular ethnic Belarusians are officially considered to constitute the Republic of Belarus, and Russians are also included as a state-forming nation in Belarus.
The 2-packaged polyurethane coatings were synthesized, blending pheylmodified polyesters(of which synthetic methods were reported in the previous paper), Desmodur L-75(polyisocyanate wide1y used for coatings), wetting-dispersing agent, white pigment. etc. A variety of coating properties were tested for the coating treatment polyurethane coationgs. Compared with conventional 2-packaged polyure-thane coating, abrasion resistance and lightness index difference of the ones synthesized in the present work were somewhat decreased, but the coating properties such as hardness, gloss specular, cross hatch adhesion. etc. were improved. Especially, resistance against chemical reagents and salt were strikingly improved. In addition. the coationgs had short drying time and long pot-life. This shows that the coationgs are appropriate for rapid drying coatings.
Oil and fats has been using as the important raw materials in the coating industry from ancient time to date. This article was prepared with the aim of helping to the forward development trend for coating uses of oil and fats, as understand together the history using oil and fats for coatings, composition and classification coatings, types and composition of oil and fats using for coatings nowaday, how to use oil and fats for coating, film for coatings, film forming mechanism.