Temperature correction trans-membrane pressure (TC-TMP) is frequently used as a fouling index in membrane water treatment plants. TC-TMP equation is derived based on an assumption that the total membrane resistance (i.e. the sum of the intrinsic membrane resistance and fouling resistance) is not affected by temperature. This work verified the validity of this assumption using microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with and without fouling. The foulants used in the work were kaolin (inorganic) and humic acid (organic). The intrinsic resistances of MF and UF membranes remains at constant values regardless of temperature change. When the same amount of foulants were accumulated on the membrane, inorganic fouling resistance with kaolin was constant regardless of temperature change while organic fouling resistance with humic acid decreased at higher temperatures, which means that TC-TMP cannot be used as a fouling index when organic fouling occurs in a real field application. Since TC-TMP underestimates the amount of fouling at higher temperatures, more attention should be necessary in the operation of membrane water treatment plant in a hotter season like summer.
Disinfectant/oxidation process is a crucial process in water treatment for supplying safe drinking water. Chlorination is still widely used for water treatment area due to its effectiveness on microbial inactivation and economic feasibility. Recently, disinfection concern in marine environment is increasing, for example, movement of hazardous marine organism due to ballast water, marine environmental degradation due to power plant cooling water discharge, and increase of the amount of disinfectant in the offshore plant. It is needed to conduct the assessment of disinfectant behavior and the development of disinfectant prediction model in seawater. The appropriate prediction model for disinfectant behavior is not yet provided. The objective of the study is to develop chlorine decay model in seawater. Various model types were applied to develop the seawater chlorine decay model, such as first order decay model, EPA model, and two-phase model. The model simulation indicated that chlorine decay in seawater is influenced by both organic and inorganic matter in seawater. While inorganic matter has a negative correlation with the chlorine decay, organic matter has a positive correlation with the chlorine decay.
The Saemangeum watershed is required to manage water pollution effectively but the effect of liquid manure (LM) on soil and water quality in the basin is not clearly identified as yet. This study aims at assessing the effect on soil of a rice field and water quality of water bodies near the rice field during rice-crop time period to find out the effect of LM, the effect of rainfall, and the effect of rice-crop environment on soil and water quality by analyzing data of nitrogen components. As a result of the LM distribution, NO3-N was much higher than other N components in the entire soil layers and it was accelerated by rainfall right after the LM distribution. Compared to chemical fertilizer (CF), LM was slightly affected but still influenced on the surface water quality. During weak rainfall, low nitrogen concentration in topsoil was resulted as NH3-N decreased and Org-N and NO3-N increased. NO3-N concentration in the water of irrigation canals increased with time. During intensive rainfall, NO3-N and Org-N of the soil were measured highly in the submerged condition, while the water quality of the rice field was lower due to flooding into the irrigation canal as well as the growth of the rice plants. Also, total nitrogen was increased more than 7 times and it showed serious water quality deterioration due to LM and excessive fertilizer distribution, and rainfall during all rice-crop processes. The effect of LM on water quality should be studied consistently to provide critical data while considering weather condition, cropping conditions, soil characteristics, and so on.
In this study, a fluorescent silica nano particle is used as the surrogate for challenging test of membrane surface integrity. The particles are functionalized by a fluorescent dying agent so that as an ultraviolet light is imposed a bright fluorescent image from the particles can be taken. If a membrane surface is damaged and has a compromised part larger than the size of surrogate the fluorescent particles would pass through and contained in the permeate. An operator can directly notice whether the membrane surface is damaged or not by detecting a fluorescent image taken from the permeate. Additionally, the size of compromised part is estimated through analysing the fluorescent image in which we surmise the mass of particles included in the permeate by calculating an average RGB value of the image. The pilot scale experiments showed that this method could be applied successfully to determine if a membrane surface had a damaged parts regardless of the test condition. In the testing on the actual damaged area of 4.712 mm2, the lowest error of estimating the damaged area was –1.32% with the surrogate concentration of 80 mg/L, flux of 40 L/m2/hr for 25 minutes of detection. A further study is still going on to increase the lowest detection limit and thus decrease the error of estimation.
In this study, rainfall characteristics with stationary and non-stationary perspectives were analyzed using generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution and Gumbel distribution models with rainfall data collected in major cities of Korea to reevaluate the return period of sewer flooding in those cities. As a result, the probable rainfall for GEV and Gumbel distribution in non-stationary state both increased with time(t), compared to the stationary probable rainfall. Considering the reliability of ξ1, a variable reflecting the increase of storm events due to climate change, the reliability of the rainfall duration for Seoul, Daegu, and Gwangju in the GEV distribution was over 90%, indicating that the probability of rainfall increase was high. As for the Gumbel distribution, Wonju, Daegu, and Gwangju showed the higher reliability while Daejeon showed the lower reliability than the other cities. In addition, application of the maximum annual rainfall change rate (ξ1·t) to the location parameter made possible the prediction of return period by time, therefore leading to the evaluation of design recurrence interval.
On account of the increase in water demand and climate change, droughts are in great concern for water resources planning and management. In this study, rainfall characteristics with stationary and non-stationary perspectives were analyzed using Weibull distribution model with 40-year records of annual minimum rainfall depth collected in major cities of Korea. As a result, the non-stationary minimum probable rainfall was expected to decrease, compared with the stationary probable rainfall. The reliability of ξ1, a variable reflecting the decrease of the minimum rainfall depth due to climate change, in Wonju, Daegu, and Busan was over 90%, indicating the probability that the minimal rainfall depths in those city decrease is high.
Owing to time and cost constraints, new methods that would make it possible to evaluate the safety of the water supply pipeline in a less time- and cost-consuming manner are urgently needed. In response to this exigency, the present study developed a new statistical model to assess the safety of the water supply pipeline using the quantification theory type Ⅱ. In this research, the safety of the water supply pipeline was defined as ‘a possibility of the pipeline failure’. Quantification analysis was conducted on the qualitative data, such as pipe material, coating, and buried condition. The results of analyses demonstrate that the hit ratio of the quantification function amounted to 77.8% of hit ratio, which was a fair value. In addition, all variables that were included in the quantification function were logically valid and demonstrated statistically significant. According to the results derived from the application of the safety evaluation model, the coefficient of determination (R2) between K-region’s water supply pipeline safety and the safety inspection amounted to 0.80. Therefore, these findings provide meaningful insight for the measured values in real applications of the model. The results of the present study can also be meaningfully used in further research on safety evaluation of pipelines, establishing of renewal prioritization, as well as asset management planning of the water supply infrastructure.
This study was conducted to examine the byproducts formation characteristics at the water treatment plants which applying electrolysis as a disinfection process in Gangwondo, Korea. Total of forty plants located in Gangwon Province, Korea were selected for the study. Correlation between dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and SUVA254 was not clear. Among the species of the disinfection byproducts(DBPs), chlorate and trihalomethanes(THMs) accounted for 76% and 14% of DBPs, respectively. The effect of DOC or SUVA254 on DBPs formation was not clearly demonstrated. The increased amount of THMs due to the raw water bromide content was found primarily in the form of chloroform, and the percent fraction of BDCM(bromodichloromethane) and DBCM(Dibromochloromethnae) was relatively insignificant. When the value of SUVA254 was greater than 2 L/mg·m, the percent fraction of BDCM and DBCM decreased while percent fraction of CF(chloroform) increased.
The characteristics of filter/adsorber granular activated carbon (F/A GAC) were investigated by measuring various parameters, which include surface area, pore volume, abrasion number, floater, and water-soluble ash. The correlation between parameters was also evaluated. Moreover, rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) was conducted for adsorption characteristics. Thirteen F/A GAC were tested, and the average values of abrasion number and water-soluble ash were 88.9 and 0.15%, respectively. F/A GAC with the larger external surface area and greater mesopore volume had the lower abrasion number, which indicated that it was worn out relatively easily. Water-soluble ash of coconut-based GAC (about 2.6%) was greater than that of coal-based GAC (less than 1%), and the pH of solution was increased with GAC, which had the higher water-soluble ash. On the other hand, floater of thirteen F/A GAC was divided as two groups, which one group had relatively higher floater (2.7~3.5%) and the other group had lower floater (approximately 0.5%). The results of RSSCT indicated that coconut-based GAC (i.e. relatively higher water-soluble ash) had less adsorption capacity. Moreover, adsorption capacity of coal-based GAC with larger surface area and greater mesopore volume was superior to others.
First of all, Fe or/and Mn immobilized granular activated carbons (Fe-GAC, Mn-GAC, (Fe, Mn)-GAC) were synthesized and tested to remove arsenate (As(V)). The results in batch test indicated that Fe-GAC removed As(V) effectively, even though the surface area of Fe-GAC was reduced largely. Moreover, adsorption isotherm test indicated that the experimental data fit well with Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of Fe-GAC for As(V) was 3.49 mg g-1, which was higher than GAC (2.24 mg g-1). In column test, the simulated water, which consisted of As(V), Fe(III), Mn(II) and Ca(II) in tap water, was used. Fe-GAC column with 1 hr of pre-washing time treated As(V) effectively while GAC column removed Fe(III) better than Fe-GAC column. Moreover, the increasing pre-washing time from 1 to 9 hour in Fe-GAC column enhanced Fe(III) removal with little negative impact of As(V) removal. Mostly, the column filled with Fe-GAC and GAC (i.e. the mass ratio of Fe-GAC:GAC = 2:8) showed the higher treatability of both As(V) and Fe(III), even it operated with 1 hr pre-washing time.
This study was performed to develop a new process technology for advanced wastewater treatment using a modified Rotating Activated Bacillus Contactor (RABC) process that adopts anoxic-oxic suspended biomass tanks to enhance nutrients removal. A modified lab-scale RABC process was applied to examine its applicability and to obtain the design factors for the optimum operation of the system. The modified RABC process showed a little more stable and high nutrients removal efficiency than the prototype RABC process: about 70% of nitrogen and 55% of phosphorous removal when the low organic loading (influent COD 200mg/L). However, the processing efficiency of nutrients removal rates was enhanced to great extent when high organic loading: nitrogen 90% and phosphorous 85% (influent COD 500mg/L). High organic loading stimulated extremely good biomass attachment on the reticular carrier RABC stage and the excellent nutrients removal, nevertheless with almost no offensive odor.
This paper presents the applicability of natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) for recovery of ammonium nitrogen from high-strength wastewater stream. Isotherm experiments showed the ammonium exchange Clinoptilolite followed Freundlich isotherm and its maximum exchange capacity was 18.13 mg NH4+-N/g zeolite. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that a significant amount of nitrogen was adsorbed to the Clinoptilolite. Optimal flowrate for recovery of high concentration ammonium nitrogen was determined at 16 BV/d (=19.2 L/min) throughout the lab-scale column studies operated under various flowrate conditions. This study also provided a method to determine the recovery rate of final product of nitrogen fertilizer based on the model application to the lab-scale continuous data.