This objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characteristics of phenol, a refractory substance, by using a submerged dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor. To indirectly determine the concentration of active species produced in the DBD plasma, the dissolved ozone was measured. To investigate the phenol degradation characteristics, the phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations were evaluated based on pH and the discharge power. The dissolved ozone was measured based on the air flow rate and power discharged. The highest dissolved ozone concentration was recorded when the injected air flow rate was 5 L/min. At a discharge power of 40W as compared to 70W, the dissolved ozone was approximately 2.7 – 6.5 times higher. In regards to phenol degradation, the final degradation rate was highest at about 74.06%, when the initial pH was 10. At a discharged power of 40W, the rate of phenol decomposition was observed to be approximately 1.25 times higher compared to when the discharged power was 70W. It was established that the phenol degradation reaction was a primary reaction, and when the discharge power was 40W as opposed to 70W, the reaction rate constant(k) was approximately 1.72 times higher.
The physical treatment such as chemical precipitation or adsorption was usually added after biological treatment in wastewater treatment process since it was enforced to reduce the concentration of phosphate for wastewater effluent to 0.2 mg/L as P which was well known as one of main nutrient causing eutrophication in waterbody. Therefore, the new material functioned for both adsorption and disinfection was prepared with Fe and Cu, and TiO2, respectively, by changing the ratio of concentration referred to tri-metal (TM). According to SEM-EDS, TiO2 was 30~40% composition for any TM regardless of any synthesis condition. However, the ratio of composition for Fe and Cu was dependent on the initial Fe and Cu concentration, respectively. The removal efficiency of phosphate was obtained to 15% at low initial concentration and the maximum uptake (Q) was calculated to ~11 mg/g through Langmuir isotherm model using TM1 which was synthesized at 1000 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, and 2 g (10 g/L) for Fe(NO3)3, Cu(NO3)2, TiO2, respectively. In disinfection test, the efficiency of virus removal using TM was increased with increase of dosage of TM and can be reached 98% at 0.2 g.
One of the most effective methods to consistently ensure the safety of a tap water supply can be achieved by application of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach for drinking water supply systems. This approach can be termed water safety plans(WSP) which recommended by WHO(world health organization) and IWA(international water association). For the introduction of WSP into Korea, 150 hazards were identified all steps in drinking water supply from catchment to consumer and risk assessment tool based on frequency and consequence of hazards were developed. Then, developed risk assessment tool by this research was implemented at a water treatment plant(Q=25,000 m3/d) to verify its applicability, and several amendments were recommended; classification of water source should be changed from groundwater to stream to strengthen water quality monitoring contaminants and frequencies; installation of aquarium to monitor intrusion of toxic substances into raw water; relocation or new installation on-line water quality analyzers for efficient water quality monitoring; change of chlorination chemical from solid phase(Ca(OCl)2) to liquid phase(NaOCl) to improve soundness of chlorination. It was also meaningful to propose hazards and risk assessment tool appropriate for Korea drinking water supply systems through this research which has been inconsistent among water treatment authorities. Key words: Hazard, Reliability, Risk management, Water safety plan, Tap water
This study would present a risk analysis method to evaluate stable tap water supply in a multi-regional water supply system and propose a measure for the evaluation of the effect of the conjunctive operation of the multi-regional water supply system using this. Judging from the vulnerability for the crisis response of the entire N. multi-regional water supply system, as compared to the result of Scenario 1 in which no conjunctive pipes were operated, it was found that in Scenario 2, in which conjunctive pipes were partially operated, the vulnerability of crisis response decreased by about 30.6%, and as compared to Scenario 3, the vulnerability of crisis response decreased by 86.2%. In setting a plan for stable tap water supply in N multi-regional water supply system, using the estimated value and the method for the evaluation of the vulnerability of crisis response by pipe, by interval and by line, it is judged that this can be utilized as a basis for the judgment of the evaluation of the operation or the additional installation of conjunctive pipes.
Desalination plants are generally studied with higher operating costs compared to water supply facilities. This study was conducted to reduce the cost of water production and to preserve existing water resources. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to utilize the control valves to increase maximum efficiency, thereby reducing the power of the pumps and operating costs. Specific energy consumption was shown to reduce the process operating power by up to 1.7 times from 6.17 to 3.55 kWh/m3 based on seawater reverse osmosis 60 bar. In addition, the water intake process was divided into pre, inter, and post-according to the use method of blasting, and the water treatment process was divided into pre, inter, and post blending. In order to reduce power consumption, the blending process was combined to operate the facility, which resulted in the reduction of power consumption in the order post > pre-inter> inter blending.
Phosphorus is a vital resource for sustaining agriculture and nutrition, but a limited non-renewable resource. Thus, the recovery of phosphorus from waste activated sludge(WAS) was attempted by microwave heating and magnesium ammonium phosphorus(MAP) crystallization. Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms(PAOs) in WAS release phosphate from the cell when they are exposed to high temperature environments. Microwave heating caused phosphorus and ammonia to release from WAS. The amount was increased with increasing temperature, showing that 88.5% of polyphosphate present in the cells were released in the form of phosphate at 80oC. A similar result was also observed in the release of ammonia. On the other hand, both phosphorus and ammonia were crystallized with magnesium, and then was harvested as MAP. Phosphorus recovery rate reached almost 97.8%, but the ammonia was about 13.4%. These results cleary indicate that phosphorus could be recovered from WAS using a physiological trait of PAOs. Heavy metal analyses also show that the MAP crystal is useful and safe as a phosphorus fertilizer.
Waterworks facilities inevitably experience some amount of leakage even if there is a lot of investment or state-of-the-art technology that is applied such as DMA(District Metered Area) system construction, leakage detection, repair, pipe rehabilitation, etc. The primary reason is the leakage is naturally restored over time. In the UK, this restoration characteristic is defined as NRR(Natural rate of rise of leakage) and used to decision making for prioritizing active leakage control of DMAs. However, this restoration characteristic is well recognized, but researches on NRR in the water distribution system are insufficient in Korea. In this study, the estimation method of NRR was developed suitable for applicating in Korea considering of SCADA data, water infrastructure, and water usage patterns by modification of the UK's NRR method. The proposed method was applied to 9 DMAs and verified it's applicability by comparing with the other water loss performance indicators. It is expected that the proposed method can be used to support decision making for sustainable NRW(Nor-revenue water) management in the water distribution system.
The purpose of this study was to analyze water treatment characteristics, including the efficiency of removing algae from water purification plants, by installing a demonstration facility for decontamination of algae, including natural algae remover injection equipment, in the water purification plant. Jar-test showed that the optimum injection of natural decontaminant was 20 mg/L. Of the water contaminant treatment efficiency of the intake and water purification plants, Chl-a averaged 74.0% elimination efficiency from 5.0 mg/m3 to 1.3 mg/m3 and the maximum treatment efficiency was 91.5% removal efficiency when the inflow concentration of Chl-a was 11.8 mg/m3. In addition, 51.2% and 47.1% of the taste and odor indicator items, geosmin and 2-MIB, resulted from the overgrowth and decaying of algae, respectively, to identify toxic substances and odor reduction effects. In addition, elimination efficiencies of SS and Turbidity materials were higher than 70.0%. In the injection of natural algae remover, no effects such as sudden changes in water quality due to secondary reactions were found, and appropriate levels were maintained under water treatment conditions.