The sewer capacity design have been based on the Huff model or the rational equation in South Korea and often failed to determine optimal capacity, resulting in frequent urban flooding or over-sizing. A time distribution of rainfall (i.e., Huff or ABM method) could be used instead of a rainfall hyetograph obtained from statistical analysis of previous rainfalls. In this study, the Huff method and the ABM method, which predict the time distribution of rain intensity, which are widely used to calculate sewage pipe drainage capacity using the SWMM, were compared with the standard rainfall intensity hyetograph of Seoul. If the rainfall duration was 30 minutes to 180 minutes, the rainfall intensity value calculated by the Huff model tended to be less than the rainfall intensity value of the standard rainfall intensity in the initial 5-10 minutes. As a result, more than 10% to 30% of under-design would be made. In addition, the rainfall intensity value calculated by the Huff model from the section excluding the initial 5-10 minutes of rainfall to the rainfall duration was calculated larger than the value using the standard rainfall intensity equation, which would result in an over-design of 10% to 30%. In the case of a relatively long rainfall duration of 360 minutes (6 hours) to 1,440 minutes (24 hours), it showed an lower rainfall intensity of 60 to 90% in the early stages of rainfall, but the problem of under-design had been solved as the rainfall duration time had elapsed. On the other hand, in the alternating block method (ABM) method, it was found that the rainfall intensity at the entire period at each assumed rainfall duration accurately matched the standard rainfall intensity hyetograph of Seoul.
The ILI, developed by the IWA (International Water Association), has been used in many countries as an indicator of water leakage. In Korea, the revenue water has been used as a performance indicator for waterworks although there is an opinion to replace it with the ILI. Hence, it has been necessary to investigate whether the ILI can replace the revenue water in Korea. The four main operating indicators (i.e., water service population, profit-loss ratio, fiscal self-reliance, and aged pipe rate) of 162 Korean waterworks were compared with the ILI with the linear regression method. Local water authorities with more than 1 million water service population, with more than 60% profit-loss ratio, more than 40% and less than 60% fiscal self-reliance, and more than 20% aged pipe rate showed meaningful correlation between the four parameters and the ILI. In the remaining cases, their correlations were little or weak. This means that using the ILI may not be an efficient method to represent the performance of the water supply system in Korea because of the lack of UARL (Unavoidable Annual Real Losses) data accuracy. To use the ILI in Korea, it will be required to carry out an additional research to accumulate reliable CARL (Current Annual Real Losses) and UARL data in the future.
Due to global climate change, mega-droughts have occurred frequently. Since long-term droughts make it difficult to secure the water resources, water supply needs to be restricted in a reasonable manner. In the event of limited water supply, the waterworks need to develop a restricted water supply strategy. This study showed that analyzing daily water supply could be used to respond to the first stage of a drought. According to an analysis of Korea's major water authorities, there was about 7~21% of room for daily minimum water supply in case of a drought. Restricting the water supply by lowering pressure is a good strategy for local water authorities with high water leakage rate since leakage is inversely dependent with pressure. For this method, it is necessary to quantify water deficiency and pressure at each node using a simulation. Since DDA-based software is not possible to predict changes in demand at nodes with pressure reduction, WaterGEMS, a PDA software, was used to quantitatively predict water shortages and pressures at each node. Locations where water is deficient need to install booster pumps or to be dispatched with water tank truck and bottled water. Without these support, lowering pressure could not be an option for water works. This paper suggests a method for waterworks to plan a drought by lowering pressure to restrict water supply using daily water supply analysis and PDA based simulation.
One of the most effective methods to consistently ensure the safety of a tap water supply can be achieved by application of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management approach for drinking water supply systems. This approach can be termed water safety plans(WSP) which recommended by WHO(world health organization) and IWA(international water association). For the introduction of WSP into Korea, 150 hazards were identified all steps in drinking water supply from catchment to consumer and risk assessment tool based on frequency and consequence of hazards were developed. Then, developed risk assessment tool by this research was implemented at a water treatment plant(Q=25,000 m3/d) to verify its applicability, and several amendments were recommended; classification of water source should be changed from groundwater to stream to strengthen water quality monitoring contaminants and frequencies; installation of aquarium to monitor intrusion of toxic substances into raw water; relocation or new installation on-line water quality analyzers for efficient water quality monitoring; change of chlorination chemical from solid phase(Ca(OCl)2) to liquid phase(NaOCl) to improve soundness of chlorination. It was also meaningful to propose hazards and risk assessment tool appropriate for Korea drinking water supply systems through this research which has been inconsistent among water treatment authorities. Key words: Hazard, Reliability, Risk management, Water safety plan, Tap water
There is a growing concern on the improvement of water distribution pipeline for multi-regional water supply system in Korea along with its aging infrastructure. Rehabilitation of large diameter pipeline is more efficient in cost and time compared to replacement with trenching. The procedure for rehabilitation are diagnosis, cleaning, spraying coating material, and final inspection. The internal state of pipeline was carefully diagnosed and got C grade, which required rehabilitation. We found that 17,274,787,000 Korean won could be saved after pipe surface coating because of increased C coefficient of Hazen-Williams equation. Optimal coating material was D polyurea. We also found optimal distance between spraying nozzle and pipe wall to be 70 - 80 cm, which were critical factors for coating quality. This study also illustrated the time for spray drying to be more than 30 min. These results could be used in the quality control process during rehabilitation of aged pipelines.
Peak load rate(i.e., maximum daily flow/average daily flow) has not been considered for industrial water demand planning in Korea to date, while area unit method based on average daily flow has been applied to decide capacity of industrial water treatment plants(WTPs). Designers of industrial WTPs has assumed that peak load would not exist if operation rate of factories in industrial sites were close to 100%. However, peak load rates were calculated as 1.10~2.53 based on daily water flow from 2009 to 2014 for 9 industrial WTPs which have been operated more than 9 years(9-38 years). Furthermore, average operation rates of 9 industrial WTPs was less than 70% which means current area unit method has tendency to overestimate water demand. Therefore, it is not reasonable to consider peak load for the calculation of water demand under current area unit method application to prevent overestimation. However, for the precise future industrial water demand calculation more precise data gathering for average daily flow and consideration of peak load rate are recommended.
Since aged water treatment facilities could threaten the sustainable water supply, asset management system has been adopted for their systematic management. Level of Service(LoS) is one of critical components of asset management and could be quantified through benchmark index(BMI). Water supplier could estimate consumer’s satisfaction and their performance through BMI to improve the LoS. We developed BMI for water treatment facilities from customer’s satisfaction survey. BMI, represented with the Total Service Score(TSS), was assessed with water quality, water pressure, taste and odor, water rate, and service quality with weighing factors. BMI could, further, be used to assist the analysis of the life cycle cost to increase the unit of LoS.
Particulate matters in a water distribution system are main causes of turbidity and discoloration of tap water. They could be removed by conventional or uni-directional flushing in a water distribution system. The behaviors and required flow velocity of particles are not well known for their flushing. A model water main and hydrant were made from transparent acrylic pipe of 30mm and 16mm in diameter, respectively. We analyzed the effect of flushing velocity, particle density, and particle diameter. We found that the existence of break-though velocities at which particles begin to be removed, and which are affected by their physical properties. The removal efficiencies seemed to be influenced by resuspension capabilities related to their upward movement from the bottom. Heavy particles like scale were hard to remove through upflow hydrant because the falling velocity, calculated using Stokes’ law, was higher. Particle removal efficiencies of upward hydrant and downward drain showed minor differences. Additionally, the length between hydrant and control valve affected flushing efficiency because the particulate matters were trapped in this space by inertia and recirculating flow.
It is important to predict chlorine decay with different water purification processes and distribution pipeline materials, especially because chlorine decay is in direct relationship with the stability of water quality. The degree of chlorine decay may affect the water quality at the end of the pipeline: it may produce disinfection by-products or cause unpleasant odor and taste. Sand filtrate and dual media filtrate were used as influents in this study, and cast iron (CI), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and stainless steel (SS) were used as pipeline materials. The results were analyzed via chlorine decay models by comparing the experimental and model parameters. The models were then used to estimate rechlorination time and chlorine decay time. The results indicated that water quality (e.g. organic matter and alkalinity) and pipeline materials were important factors influencing bulk decay and sand filtrate exhibited greater chlorine decay than dual media filtrate. The two-component second-order model was more applicable than the first decay model, and it enabled the estimation of chlorine decay time. These results are expected to provide the basis for modeling chlorine decay of different water purification processes and pipeline materials.
The purpose of this study is to analyse the geological and terrain factors of the part of Choogaryeong Rift Valley between Yeoncheon and Cheolwon. The results are: (1) The geology is composed of three kinds of rocks: Yeoncheon System, Jurassic volcanic rocks and Quaternary Jeongok basalt. (2) It seems to be that there are basaltic layers of 7-8m thickness below the rift valley by the analysis of resistivity survey. (3) The topography of the region could be divided into two characteristic parts: the rift valley and surrounding mountainous area. (4) The site of the area is important because it is the boundary where two kinds of different geologic factors contact. (5) The situation of the area is important because of its central location between Seoul and Wonsan.
Punch Bowl basin is analysed for the earth science and terrain factors such as geology, geophysical features, topography and water systems. The study area is composed of two kinds of rocks : Jurrasic granite in the central part and Precambrian metamorphic complex in the marginal part of she basin. The depth of the base rock is about 20 to 40 meters below the surface at the center of the basin. The process which has formed the basin may be the differential weathering of the rocks. The morphology of the slope of the basin is concave and the slope is about 20° above the nickpoint and about 5° below it. The water system of the region is very poor in drainage pattern.