Pollutants removal efficiency in pretreatment(GAC filter, multi-media filter, disk filter) and RO facilities was investigated for the Jeju Samyang spring water source where raw water intake has been stopped due to sea water intrusion. In addition, preliminary feasibility analysis was conducted between RO and groundwater intake systems. Turbidity removal in 4 different pretreatment processes was less than 25% due to low concentration of turbidity(i.e., less than 0.21 NTU), while multi-media filter is recommended for the pretreatment facility based on the low organic content in raw water as well as cheaper operation and maintenance cost. The average concentration of Cl- in raw water was 691.4 mg/L, while that of RO permeate was 9.1 mg/L(i.e., removal efficiency was 98.4%). In addition, TDS removal efficiency was 98.1%, which was quite high. The production cost for RO system(Q=4,000 m3/d) was 362.1 won/m3 considering installation, operation and maintenance cost for 30 years. While that of groundwater was 262.6 won/m3 which was low compared to the RO system. However, it is recommended to introduce RO system for Samyang water source rather than new groundwater development because Samyang water source has been discharged to the sea without any usage, while groundwater can be used for other purpose as a sustainable water source.
This study was carried out for characterization of MIO synthesized in our laboratory by co-precipitation method and applied isotherm and kinetic models for adsorption properties. XRD analysis were conducted to find crystal structure of synthesized MIO. Further SEM and XPS analysis was performed before and after phosphate adsorption, and BET analysis for surface characterization. Phosphate stock solution was prepared by KH2PO4 for characterization of phosphate adsorption, and batch experiment was conducted using 50 ml conical tube. Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied based on adsorption equilibrium test of MIO by initial phosphate solution. Pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were applied for interpretation of kinetic model by temperature. Surface area and pore size of MIO were found 89.6 m2/g and 16 nm respectively. And, the determination coefficient (R2) value of Langmuir model was 0.9779, which was comparatively higher than that of Freundlich isotherm model 0.9340.
In this study, determination methods of monitoring location in water distribution system were suggested and applied to real test bed. Small block of Gwangtan water distribution system is consisted of 582 pipes, 564 junctions, 1 reservoir, and 1 pump station. Small block of Ho Chi Minh water distribution system is consisted of 162 pipes, 148 junctions, and 1 reservoir. Two small block water distribution systems were analyzed by pressure contribution analysis method to determine the optimum monitoring locations. The pressure change was estimated at each junctions by the additional demand at a junction. From the results, the optimum monitoring location can be determined by rank of pressure contribution index at each junctions due to demand change at a junction.
The study of water environment system using a multivariate analysis in Changnyeong-Haman weir section has been conducted. The purpose of this study is to establish better understanding related water qualities in the Changnyeong-Haman weir section which can provide useful information. The data were consisted of water quality data and algae data including WT(water temperature), pH, DO, EC, COD, SS, T-N, NH3-N, T-P, PO4-P, Chl-a, TOC, d-silica, t-silica, Cyanobacteria, Diatoms, and Green algae. Statistical analyses used in this study were correlation analysis, principal components, and factor analysis. According to correlation analysis on COD and TOC, it revealed that the each value of correlation coefficient was 0.843. On the other result, a negative correlation was observed between diatoms and d-silica. Furthermore, the results of principal component analysis to the overall water quality were classified into four main factors with contribution rate 81.071%.
Waterborne infectious disease is induced by several pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, viruses and protozoans, and the cases caused by viral infection is currently increasing. Water treatment process could reduce the number of virus in the water, but there were many difficulties to completely remove the virus particles from water. Therefore, the membrane separation technology which was reported to effectively remove pollutants from raw water has attracted increasing attention and demand. Since its efficiency has been introduced, demands for evaluation method toward the membrane filtration process are increasing. However, progression of the method development is slow due to the difficulties in cultivation of several waterborne viruses from animal models or cell culture system. To overcome the difficulties, we used adenovirus, one of the commonly isolated pathogenic waterborne viruses which can grow in cell culture system in vitro. The adenovirus used in this study was identified as human adenovirus C strain. The adenovirus was spiked in the raw water and passed through the microfiltration membrane produced by Econity, a Korean membrane company, and then the viral removal rate was evaluated by real-time PCR. In the results, the amount of virus in the filtered water was decreased approximately by 5 log scale. Because coagulant treatment has been known to reduce filtering function of the membrane by inducing fouling, we also investigated whether there was any interference of coagulant. In the results, we confirmed that coagulant treatment did not show significant interference on microfiltration membrane. In this study, we found that waterborne virus can be effectively removed by membrane filtration system. In particular, here we also suggest that real-time PCR method can rapidly, sensitively and quantitatively evaluate the removal rate of virus. These results may provide a standard method to qualifying membrane filtration processes.
Although microalgae are considered as a promising feedstock for biofuels, cost-efficient harvesting of microalgae needs to be significantly improved. In this study, the use of electro coagulation as a more rapid flocculation method for harvesting a freshwater (Scenedesmus dimorphus) microalgae species was evaluated. The results showed that, electro coagulation was shown to be more efficient using an aluminum anode than using an iron anode. And optimum conditions of electro coagulation for harvesting Scenedesmus dimorphus were found. The optimum stirring speed was 100 rpm and optimum pH was 5. Furthermore, the current density which the fastest and highest recovery efficiency is achieved at 30 A/m2, while the highest energy efficiency was achieved at 10 A/m2. A the rapid and high recovery efficiency indicate that electro coagulation is a particularly attractive technology for harvesting microalgae.
Recently, the need for asset management(AM) plan introduction to reduce increasing O&M cost with aging water facilities is on the rise. Therefore, asset inventory classification is necessary as the first step for AM plan construction. In this study, all assets of YW water treatment plant(WTP) were classified as 5 steps. In addition, specific code name was given to each asset which can increase compatibility in constructing the AM programs among WTPs. In the future, codes for attribute and status of asset will be allocated, which can facilitate proper AM operation.
In this study, Hazen-Williams C value of pipes in wide waterworks system was estimated and statistically analyzed. Hazen-Williams C value of water pipe was predicted after 20 years of service period. From the results, it was found that C value of water pipe for treated water maintained higher value of 110 after 20 years of installation. Furthermore, it was found that velocity coefficients of steel pipe for less than and more than 20 years of installation were 117.7 and 109.3, respectively. C value of ductile iron pipe for less than and more than 20 years of installation were 118.1 and 114.2, respectively. In this study, it was also found that small value of C is used in the design of water pipe system. Therefore, excessively bigger size of pipe can be determined in the design of water pipe system. From the results of present study, optimum value of C can be used to avoid the oversized design of water pipe system.
Since aged water treatment facilities could threaten the sustainable water supply, asset management system has been adopted for their systematic management. Level of Service(LoS) is one of critical components of asset management and could be quantified through benchmark index(BMI). Water supplier could estimate consumer’s satisfaction and their performance through BMI to improve the LoS. We developed BMI for water treatment facilities from customer’s satisfaction survey. BMI, represented with the Total Service Score(TSS), was assessed with water quality, water pressure, taste and odor, water rate, and service quality with weighing factors. BMI could, further, be used to assist the analysis of the life cycle cost to increase the unit of LoS.
The concern over the risk of environmental exposure to brominated phenols has been increased and has led the researchers to focus their attention on the study of bromophenol treatment. In this study, the effects of pH and ferrate(VI) dose on the degradation of 2-bromophenol were investigated. The results indicated that the oxidation of 2-bromophenol by liquid ferrate(VI) was found to be highly sensitive to the pH condition. Furthermore, the highest removal efficiency was observed at the neutral condition with the removal efficiency of 94.2%. In addition, experimental results showed that 2-bromophenol removal efficiency increased with increasing of ferrate dosage. Ferrate(VI) dose of 0.23 mM was sufficient to remove most of the 2-bromophenol with the efficiency of 99.73% and kapp value of 2982 M-1s-1. Seven compounds were identified as the intermediate products by the GC/MS analysis.
The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate that a roadside tree root intrudes sewer network systems. Two approaches were performed to assess the characteristics of tree root intrusion. First, the characteristics of tree roots that had invaded sewers were directly observed by means of closed-circuit television inspection robot. Second, the intrusion proportions of tree root into rain gutters in the sampling area were investigated. As tree species of low intrusion proportions, the results indicated that Ginkgo biloba Linn. and Acer buergerianum Miq. were 1.7% and 4.3%. On the other hand, tree species of high intrusion proportions were Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica Nakai and Zelkova serrata Makino as 22.2%, 20.4%, and 17.6% respectively. In particular, sewers and gutters around Zelkova species should be the focus of maintenance work because of the high proportion of these trees on roadsides.