This study assessed the removal efficiency of NOM which is known as the precursors of DBPs in advanced water treatment using the ceramic membrane filtration, introduced the first in the nation at the Y water treatment plant (WTP). It is generally well-known that the removal of NOM by MF Membrane is very low in water treatment process. But, the result of investigation on removal efficiency of NOM in advanced water treatment using the ceramic membrane was different as follows. The removal rate of organic contaminant by the ceramic membrane advanced water treatment was determined to be 65.5% for the DOC, 85.8% for UV254, and 77 to 86% for DBPFP. The removal rate of pre-ozonation was found to be 6 to 15% more effective compared with the pre-chlorination. The removal rate of DOC and UV254 in biological activated carbon(BAC) process was over 50% and 75%, respectively although the rate was decreased 10 ~ 20% according to analysis items in converting from GAC to BAC.
In recent years, Smart Water Grid (SWG) concept has globally emerged over the last decade and also gained significant recognition in South Korea. Especially, there has been growing interest in water demand forecast and this has led to various studies regarding energy saving and improvement of water supply reliability. In this regard, this study aims to develop a nonlinear ensemble model for hourly water demand forecasting which allow us to estimate uncertainties across different model classes. The concepts was demonstrated through application to observed from water plant (A) in the South Korea. Various statistics (e.g. the efficiency coefficient, the correlation coefficient, the root mean square error, and a maximum error rate) were evaluated to investigate model efficiency. The ensemble based model with an cross-validate prediction procedure showed better predictability for water demand forecasting at different temporal resolutions. In particular, the performance of the ensemble model on hourly water demand data showed promising results against other individual prediction schemes.
Ultrapure water (UPW) is water containing nothing but water molecule (H2O). The use of UPW is increasing in many industries such as the thermal and nuclear power plants, petrochemical plants, and semiconductor manufacturers. In order to produce UPW, several unit processes such as ion exchange, reverse osmosis (RO), ultraviolet (UV) oxidation should be efficiently arranged. In particular, RO process should remove not only ions but also low molecular weight (LMW) organic matters in UPW production system. But, the LMW organic matter removal data of RO membranes provided by manufacturers does not seem to be reasonable because they tested the removal in high concentration conditions like 1,000 ppm of isopropyl alcohol (IPA, MW=60.1). In this study, bench-scale experiments were carried out using 4-inches RO modules. IPA was used as a model LMW organic matter with low concentration conditions less than 1 ppm as total organic carbon (TOC). As a result, the IPA removal data by manufacturers turned out to be trustable because the effect of feed concentration on the IPA removal was negligble while the IPA removal efficiency became higher at higher permeate flux.
Algal problem in drinking water treatment is being gradually increased by causing deterioration of water supplies therefore, especially taste and odor compounds such as geosmin and 2-MIB occur mainly aesthetic problem by its unpleasant effects resulting in the subsequent onset of complaints from drinking water consumer. Recently, geosmin and 2-MIB are detected frequently at abnormally high concentration level. However, conventional water treatment without advanced water treatment processes such as adsorption and oxidation process, cannot remove these two compounds efficiently. Moreover, it is known that the advanced treatment processes i.e. adsorption and oxidation have also several limits to the removal of geosmin and 2-MIB. Therefore, the purpose of this study was not only to evaluate full scale nanofiltration membrane system with 300 m3/ day of permeate capacity and 90% of recovery on the removal of geosmin and 2-MIB in spiked natural raw water sources at high feed concentration with a range of approximately 500 to 2,500 ng/L, but also to observe rejection property of the compounds within multi stage NF membrane system. Rejection rate of geosmin and 2-MIB by NF membrane process was 96% that is 4% of passage regardless of the feed water concentration which indicates NF membrane system with an operational values suggested in this research can be employed in drinking water treatment plant to control geosmin and 2-MIB of high concentration. But, according to results of regression analysis in this study it is recommended that feed water concentration of geosmin and 2-MIB would not exceed 220 and 300 ng/L respectively which is not to be perceived in drinking tap water. Also it suggests that the removal rate might be depended on an operating conditions such as feed water characteristics and membrane flux. When each stage of NF membrane system was evaluated relatively higher removal rate was observed at the conditions that is lower flux, higher DOC and TDS, i.e., 2nd stage NF membrane systems, possibly due to an interaction mechanisms between compounds and cake layer on the membrane surfaces.
The performance of the new aerobic digestion system combined with inorganic sludge separation unit and sludge solubilization unit, CaviTec II, is evaluated. Anaerobic digester effluent sludge is used for feed sludge of CaviTec II system. By addition of CaviTec II, the amount of cake generated is reduced by 27%, and the soluble nitrogen is reduced by 92%.
Recent studies have been reported the presence of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds, Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (EDC/PPCPs) in surface and wastewater, which could potentially affect to the complicate behavior in coupled presence of nano-colloid particles and surfactants (adsorption, dispersion, and partitioning). In this study, the adsorption of EDC/PPCPs by Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) as a representative of nano-particles in cationic surfactant solutions were investigated. Hydrophobic interactions (π-π Electron Donor-Acceptor) have been reported as a potential adsorption mechanisms for EDC/PPCPs onto SWNTs. Generally, the adsorptive capacity of the relatively hydrophobic EDC/PPCPs onto SWNTs decreased in the presence of cationic surfactant (Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide, CTAB). This study revealed that the competitive adsorption occurred between CTAB cations and EDC/PPCPs by occupying the available SWNT surface (CTAB adsorption onto SWNTs shows five-regime and maximum adsorption capacity of 370.4 mg/g by applying the BET isotherm). The adsorption capacity of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on SWNT showed the decrease of 48% in the presence of CTAB. However, the adsorbed naproxen (NAP) surely increased by forming hemimicelles and resulted in a favorable media formation for NAP partition to increase SWNTs adsorption capacity. The adsorbed NAP increased from 24 to 82.9 mg/g after the interaction of CTAB with NAP. The competitive adsorption for EDC/PPCPs onto SWNTs is likely to be a key factor in the presence of cationic surfactant, however, NAP adsorption showed a slight competition through CH3-CH3 interaction by forming hemimicelles on SWNT surface.
The ozonation process has been widely used for drinking water disinfection around the world. Recently, the pressurized ozone contactor, in which the side stream typed ozone injection method is installed, has been applied to water treatment system. In this study, numerical calculations were conducted to compare prototype and screw-type ozone contactors based on hydraulic effectiveness in more details. The prototype ozone contactor was already installed and operated in domestic water treatment plant, and the screw-type is the suggested one for improving ozone contact efficiency installing the screw plate to the prototype. Screw turn numbers of screw plate were changed as 3, 5, 7 and 9, respectively for numerical simulation. The CT(concentration of disinfectant in mg/L times time in minutes) value was considered as one of the options for evaluating disinfection ability. From the results, it could be concluded that the performance of the screw-type is higher than that of the protype contactor by controlling the variable T as the tracer time. Also, Morill index of the screw-type(turn numbers = 5 ) appeared to be lower than the other.
The flushing is important to maintain good water quality in water main. It is a technique of using water velocity to remove sediments in water distribution system. The variety of water quality problems can occur in a distribution system, so too can a variety of benefits be gained by system flushing. In order to effectively perform the flushing, the contaminants to be removed to set up and it can be solved, it is necessary to ensure the proper flow rate. In this study, the removal of contaminants present in the inner water pipe attached loose deposits such as fine particles of granular activated carbon, sand and iron corrosion product sought to derive flow rates. Thus, the constant observation of using pilot plant scale water distribution plant for the movement of floating characteristics of particles were assessed.
The excessive concentration of phosphorus in the river and reservoir is a deteriorating factor for the eutrophication. The converter slag was used to remove the phosphate from the synthetic wastewater. Influencing factors were studied to remove soluble orthophosphate with the different particle sizes through the batch and the column experiments by continuous flow. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm constants were obtained from batch experiments with PSA and PSB. Freundlich isotherm was fitted better than Langmuir isotherm. Regression coefficient of Freundlich isotherm was 0.95 for PSA and 0.92 for PSB, respectively. The adsorption kinetics from the batch experiment were revealed that bigger size of convert slag, PSA can be applied for the higher than 3.5 mg/L of phosphate concentration. The pilot plant of continuous flow was applied in order to evaluate the pH variation, breakthrough points and breakthrough adsorption capacity of phosphate. The variation of pH was decreased through the experimental hours. The breakthrough time was 1,432 and 312 hours to 10 mg/L and 50 mg/L for the influent concentration, respectively. The breakthrough adsorption capacity was 3.54 g/kg for 10 mg/L, and 1.72 g/kg for 50 mg/L as influent phosphate concentration.
The tap water plays a critical role in our daily life by providing clean water for drinking as well as for residential use. Its importance, however, is often hidden and criticized in mass media because drinking the unprocessed tap water as a primary source of drinking water is very low comparing to other countries. This is because survey tool in Korea is often different from those in other countries so their results on the tap water cannot be directly compared without analysis on survey questionnaire. Therefore, we examplified cases showing the difference of questions of each country and discussed the reason why results of tap water intake should not be compared without analysis on the questions. Also, distrust on Arisu without rational reason is known as the first reason of distrust on the tap water. However, it was not the ultimate reason of distrust on the tap water. To verify, we designed survey questions in a tricky way that the same question was asked twice with different choices in the survey questionnaire. Most of the people who distrust Arisu without rational reason at the first question were selected different choices and significantly reduced in the second question. This proved that the ratio of distrust on the tap water is not actually the right reason and that by providing more choices, people’s distrust on the tap water without rational reason can turn into more specific reasons.
Microalgae is known as one alternative energy source of the fossil fuel with the small size of 5 ~ 50 µm and negative charge. Currently, the cost of microalgae recovery process take a large part, about 20 - 30% of total operating cost. Thus, the microalgae recovery method with low cost is needed. In this study, the optimum current for Scenedesmus dimorphus recovery process using electrocoagulation techniques was investigated. Under the electrical current, Al metal in anode electrode is oxidized to oxidation state of Al3+. In the cathode electrode, the water electrolysis generated OH- which combine with Al3+ to produce Al(OH)3. This hydroxide acts as a coagulant to harvest microalgae.Before applying in 1.5 L capacity electrocoagulation reactor, Scenedesmus dimorphus was cultured in 20 L cylindrical reactor to concentration of 1 OD.The microalgae recovery efficiency of electrocoagulation reactor was evaluated under different current conditions from 0.1 ~ 0.3 A. The results show that, the fastest and highest recovery efficiency were achieved at the current or 0.3 A, which the highest energy efficiency was achieved at 0.15 A.
Membrane backwashing waste shows seasonally different characteristics and it has bad settleability differently from general backwashing waste in water treatment plant. When chemicals was injected to membrane backwashing waste, the settleability was better than chemicals was not injected. However, when settled lower sludge was not discharged, flowing sludge continuously was concentrated over a certain surface and floatation penomena occurred according to flowing velocity. When the lower sludge was discharged continuously in the thickener to prevent floatation penomena of turbidity materials, the depth of sludge surface was the least and the settleability increased.
Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, water supply and sewer line systems are also developed relevantly. Manhole is an essential component structure of the pipeline system. Manhole is a structure constructed to accommodate the direction, dimension, differences in level, and easy of maintenance in the pipeline system. In this paper we present the result of investigations pertaining to the structural behavior of PVC sewer manhole buried underground. In the paper mechanical properties of PVC material are reported. In addition, by the finite element analysis (FEA), we confirmed that a PVC double-wall corrugated pipe manhole, when it is buried underground, is safe for the stress as well as buckling strength if the manhole is constructed within the suggested limit of buried depth.