This study examined a feasibility of coagulation as post-treatment to remove sulfide and phosphorus for the effluent of anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating domestic wastewater. Removal efficiencies of sulfide, phosphorus and COD by coagulation were not affected by pH in the range of 5.9 to 7.2. Alkalinity requirement could be estimated by the amount of Fe3+ to form Fe(OH)3(S) and to remove sulfide and phosphorus. At coagulant aid dosage of 2 mg/L, anionic polymer showed best results regarding size and settleability of flocs. Sulfide removal for the AFBR effluent at the Fe3+/S2- ratio of 0.64, close to the theoretical value of 0.67 found with a synthetic wastewater, was only 75.2%. One of the reasons for this low sulfide removal is that the AFBR effluent contains, phosphorus, hydroxide and bicarbonate which can react with Fe3+ competitively. Concentrations of sulfide and phosphorous reduced to below 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, at the Fe3+/S2- ratio of 2.0. Average effluent COD of 80 mg/L, mostly soluble COD, was obtained at the dosage 50 mg Fe3+/L (Fe3+/S2- ratio of 2.0) with corresponding COD removal of 55%. For better removal of COD, soluble COD removal at the AFBR should be enhanced. Coagulation with Fe3+ removed sulfide, phosphorus and COD simultaneously in the AFBR effluent, and thus could be an alternative process for the conventional wastewater treatment processes where relatively high quality effluent is not required.
The changes of rainfall pattern and impervious covers have increased disaster risks in urbanized areas. Impervious covers such as roads and building roofs have been dramatically increased. So, it is falling the ability safety of flood defense equipments to exist. Runoff coefficient means ratio of runoff by whole rainfall which is able to directly contribute at surface runoff during rainfall event. The application of accurate runoff coefficients is very important in sewer pipelines design.This study has been performed to estimate runoff characteristics change which are applicable to the process of sewer pipelines design or various public facilities design. It has used the SHER model, a long-term runoff model, to analyze the impact of a rising impervious covers on runoff coefficient change. It thus analyzed the long-term runoff to analyze rainfall basins extraction. Consequently, it was found that impervious surfaces could be a important factor for urban flood control. We could suggest the application of accurate runoff coefficients in accordance to the land Impervious covers. The average increase rates of runoff coefficients increased 0.011 for 1% increase of impervious covers. By having the application of the results, we could improve plans for facilities design.
To perform long-term sewer monitoring, It is important to understand the nature of the wastewater flow that occurs at the point on early stage of the monitor and to prevent in advance a problem which may caused. We can infer the flow properties and external factors by analyzing the scatter graph obtained from the measured data flow rate monitoring data since an field external factor affecting the sewage flow is reflected in the flow rate monitoring data. In this study, Selecting the three points having various external factors, and we Inferred the sewer flow characteristics from depth-velocity scatter graph and determined the analysis equation for the dry-weather flow rate data. At the‘point 1’expected non-pressure flow, we were able to see the drawdown effect caused by the free fall in the manhole section. At the‘point 2’, existed weir and sediments, there was backwater effect caused by them, and each of size calculated from the scatter graph analysis were 400 mm and 130 mm. At the‘Point 3’, there is specific flow pattern that is coming from flood wave propagation generated by the pump station at upstream. In common, adequate equations to explain the dry weather flow data are flume equation and modified manning equation(SS method), and the equations had compatibility for explaining the data because all of R2 values are over 0.95.
Under Korea’s Enforcement Decree of the Framework Act on Environmental Policy amended in 2013, total organic carbon (TOC) is newly added as water quality parameter to assess organic pollution in the aquatic ecosystem. To meet the TOC requirement and improve quality of effluent discharged into public watershed, it is also necessary to develop standards for TOC in effluent from public sewage treatment works (PSTWs).In this study, we reviewed the characteristics and removal efficiency of TOC in influent and effluent of PSTWs. The study found that phosphorus treatment process removed not only soluble phosphorus but also a portion of TOC remaining after the secondary treatment process. TOC concentration in effluent from PSTWs operated in tandem with industrial wastewater treatment work was higher due to influx of insoluble substances from the industrial wastewater treatment work.In order to lay a foundation for the management of TOC from PSTWs, it is necessary to carry out research on TOC from different perspectives. For example, studies on the generation mechanism of TOC and the impact of TOC on drinking water resources, assessment of effluent qualities through monitoring, and development of measures to control TOC for the preservation of aquatic ecosystem are needed.
3D-based BIM(Building Information Modeling) technologies can be utilized effectively as a means of systematic management of facility information for safety assurance and effective maintenance of waterworks facilities. In this study, BIM models of water treatment facilities that can be used as basic data for BIM-based maintenance of waterworks facilities were developed. Information exchange and generality of the developed BIM models were evaluated by conducting interoperability analysis of IFC(Industry Foundation Classes) conversion models. In addition, the application of COBie(Construction Operations Building information exchange) was recommended as an effective countermeasure to deal with technical limitation regarding exchange and utilization of facilities-related information through current IFC models. The results of this study can contribute to the development of BIM-based maintenance system for waterworks facilities.
It is known that sewer problems are the major causes of road cave-in. The objective of this study is to analyze the risk of road cave-in due to storm sewer laterals. We investigated 174 storm sewer laterals using a zoom camera at O-dong area in Seoul. The causes of road cave-in were classified into five cases: breakage of rigid pipe, deformation of flexible pipe, out of pipeline alignment, changing pipe material or changing pipe diameter, and a poor linkage between lateral and sewer. In addition, all defects were sorted into five grades based on the severity rating at storm sewer laterals. In this study, the most fragile pipe materials were found to be concrete pipe and polyethylene pipe, which recorded 2.3 and 1.69 defect rates. With regard to the causes of road cave-in, deformation of flexible pipe has a large influence on road cave-in at present. On a long-term basis, the two causes, out of pipeline alignment and a poor linkage between lateral and sewer, could have more influence on road cave-in.
This study investigated the effect of a co-culture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and nitrifiers using artificial wastewater on the removal of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in the advanced treatment. To test the synergistic effect of the co-culture, we compared the co-culture treatment with the cultures using S. dimorphus-only and nitrifiers-only treatment as controls. After 6 days of incubation, nitrate was removed only in the co-culture treatment and total amount of N removal was 1.3 times and 1.6 times higher in the co-culture treatment compared to those in the S. dimorphus- and nitrifiers-only treatments, respectively. In case of total amount of P, co-culture treatment removed 1.2 times and 12 times more P than the S. dimorphus -and nitrifiers-only conditions, respectively. This indicates that the co-culture improved removal rates for ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate. This further implies that there was no need for denitrification of nitrate and luxury uptake of P processes because nitrate and phosphate can be removed from the uptake by S. dimorphus. In addition, co-culture condition maintained high DO above 7 mg/L without artificial aeration, which is enough for nitrification, implying that co-culture has a potential to decrease or remove aeration cost in the wastewater treatment plants.
This study was carried out to analyze water suspension in the water supply system through fault tree analysis. And quantitative factors was evaluated to minimize water suspension. Consequently the aim of this study is to build optimal planning by analyzing scenarios for water suspension.Accordingly the fault tree model makes it possible to estimate risks for water suspension, current risks is 92.23 m3/day. The result of scenario analysis by pipe replacement, risks for water suspension was reduced 7.02 m3/day when replacing WD4 pipe. As a result of scenario analysis by water district connections, the amount of risk reduction is maximized when it is connecting to network pipe of D Zone. Therefore, connecting to network pipe for D Zone would be optimal to reduce risk for water suspension.
Biofouling in brackish water reverse osmosis (RO) membranes still needs extensive research to understand cause and mechanism and to obtain methods for reduction of its impact on RO applications. Natural compounds with biofilm formation inhibitory properties are being investigated. Two compounds, vanillin and Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), were selected due to their great potential on biofilm formation inhibition. Vanillin shows inhibition on quorum sensing mechanisms of biofilm formation. EGCG has potential to inactivate microbial activity. The two compounds were incorporated in typical polyamide reverse osmosis membranes and evaluated on flux behaviours and biofilm formation potential. The surface properties of membrane coated with vanillin were changed tremendously compared to those with EGCG. As a result, the flux was reduced substantially. The biofilm formation seems hindered with EGCG coated membranes compared to the virgin membranes. More research is needed to optimize coating methods applicable to RO membranes and to enhance biofouling reduction.
16 water treatment plants(WTPs) in Jeju province were investigated to evaluate the corrosivity of tap water. In addition, the impacts of lime and carbon dioxide on LI changes at ES WTP were analyzed. The average of LI in Jeju tap was -1.78 which was similar to that of in-land multi-regional WTPs. The recommended process to improve LI of ES WTP which has high corrosivity(i.e., LI = -2.61) was to combine lime and carbon dioxide with the dosages of 20 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively to meet LI of -1.0 ~ 0. pH was confirmed to be a major water quality parameter that determined LI based on the correlation results among LI and water quality parameters. Precaution on turbidity increase by lime addition should given to minimize particle breakthrough in the distribution system. Turbidity increase can be controlled by the addition of lime prior to filters.
This paper presents PKES(PuKyung -Excel based Simulator) for WWTPs(wastewater treatment plants) by using MS Excel and VBA(Visual Basic for Application). PKES is a user-friendly simulator for the design and optimization of the whole plant including biological and physico-chemical processes for the wastewater and sludge treatment. PKES calculates the performance under steady or dynamic state and allows changing the mathematical model by the user. Mathematical model implemented in PKES is a improved integration model based on ASM2d and ADM1 for simulation of AS(activated sludge) and AD(anaerobic digestion). Gaseous components of N2, N2O, CO2 and CH4 are added for estimation of GHGs(greenhouse gases) emission.The simulation results for comparison between PKES and Aquasim(EAWAG) showed about the same effluent concentrations. As a result of verification using by measured data of BOD, TSS, TN and TP for 2 years of operation, calculated effluent concentrations were similar to measured effluent concentrations. The values of average RMSE(root mean square error) were 1.9, 0.8, 1.6 and 0.2 mg/L for BOD, TSS, TN and TP, respectively. Total GHGs emission of WWTP calculated by PKES was 138.5 ton-CO2/day and GHGs emissions of N2O, CO2 and CH4 were calculated at 21.7, 28.9 and 87.9 ton-CO2/day, respectively. GHGs emission of activated sludge was 32.5 % and that of anaerobic digestion was 67.5 %.
In this paper, a System Dynamics(SD) computer simulation model has been developed to assess the effects of developing and providing an alternate water source. A water service index was also developed to estimate the level of overall customer satisfaction on water supply service. Data from the Busan water supply service and the Korea Development Institute regarding the Nak Dong river bank storage development were utilized during the modeling processes. Some important indicators of the system under study were analyzed by the simulations of development of the alternate water source for Busan. The developed SD model and the water service index can be further utilized as a tool that can assess the extent and timing of an additional service improvement project.